was reported in El Dorado Grenache, while the deep granitic soils of the Shenandoah Valley held average tonnage for Zinfandel and Primitivo.
Differences aside, the variations are still sufficiently similar as to be susceptible to the same diseases, and Moscatos repeatedly suffer from coulure
, a disease that prevents the grapevine flowers from pollinating, as well as from other afflictions.
'Rupestris du Lot' may cause indirect coulure
as it grows grafted varieties vegetatively strong (Bahar et al., 2009; Celik, 1996).
Clusters were loose, berry sizes were "pumpkins and peas" (shatter or coulure
), and the net effect was a smaller crop overall, with some vineyards well below normal (less than 50% of average yields).
High levels of shatter (coulure
) and hens-and-chicks (millerandage) were prevalent in many vineyards that had escaped earlier freeze damage.
Greg Jones, geographer and climatologist, found that around the state we experienced "unsettled weather during flowering, resulting in poor fruit set." Jones explained that the French call this phenomenon coulure
. As we have seen this year, coulure
results in reduced yields, but in many cases enables quality when other conditions are favorable.
Unseasonably cool temperatures in June slightly delayed and/or prolonged the flowering in most regions, yet fruit set was good and coulure
(poor fruit set) was limited.
The yo-yo conditions of early June (30[degrees]C on 1st, 17[degrees]C on 4th, 31[degrees]C on 8th, 15[degrees]C on 10th) were certain to cause some coulure
and millerandage on the later-flowering vines of the cooler soils, and there was little of each everywhere.
Muscat Ottonel is subject to coulure
(poor fruit set) when weather at bloom is unfavorable.
There was some frost damage in May and flowering at the end of May was interrupted by eight days of cold, rainy weather, which caused some problems with coulure
. However, most of the summer following was sunny and warm, with harvesting starting on September 13, two weeks ahead of normal.