Jacob's Antwerp Art and Counter Reformation
in Rubens's Parish Church
In their introduction, the editors question the traditional dichotomy between a failed Reformation assumed to have characterized the first half of the century and a repressive Counter Reformation
marking the second half.
In 1563, Protestant martyrologist John Foxe published his Acts and Monuments chronicling the suffering of the victims of persecution during the Marian Counter Reformation
. This work provided "binding historical myths" that served to reinforce Protestant ideology.
He looks at the movement called the Counter Reformation
, Calvinism and how it played out in the various countries that embraced it, persecutions (including the Inquisition, the burning of witches, and the martyrdom of dissidents from both the Catholic and Lutheran churches), the Enlightenment, the Church of England, Lutheranism in Scandinavia, Methodism, church design, sermon style, music, art, and architecture, the effect of the printing press, biblical translations, Anabaptism, pietism, and more.
Inspired by Counter Reformation
zeal, the establishment of the Guarani Missions in the early 1600s was one of the most noteworthy efforts of the Jesuits in the New World.
The Burgweinting church, on the other hand, minimizes tectonic expression in favour of visual effect; its almost explicitly theatrical sensibility necessarily evokes the German Counter Reformation
's often theatrical churches.
As with so much in the Reformation and the Catholic movement known as the Counter Reformation
, this dogmatism led to a more moderate reaction.
Although deeply influenced by the Counter Reformation
, the Milanese or Ambrosian liturgy (which was used in Milan and its suburbs) remained independent from the Roman rite.
In the prehistory to the events of his chronicle, Christian astutely points out that miraculous events and images have occurred in particular in years of political crisis -- e.g., the Counter Reformation
. Devotions to the Sacred Heart and Our Lady of Mount Carmel came to have standardized images and the Pope rewarded prayers to these devotions with indulgences that were universal.
THE REFASHIONING OF CATHOLICISM, 1450-1700: A REASSESSMENT OF THE COUNTER REFORMATION
. By Robert Bireley.
Her reign came at the peak of the Counter Reformation
, in which Rome battled to reclaim countries earlier lost to Protestantism.