Jacob's Antwerp Art and Counter Reformation
in Rubens's Parish Church
In their introduction, the editors question the traditional dichotomy between a failed Reformation assumed to have characterized the first half of the century and a repressive Counter Reformation
marking the second half.
Bridget Heal's work is a thorough case study of Reformation and Counter Reformation
Marian piety in three representative cities: Nuremberg, Augsburg, and Cologne.
In 1563, Protestant martyrologist John Foxe published his Acts and Monuments chronicling the suffering of the victims of persecution during the Marian Counter Reformation
He looks at the movement called the Counter Reformation
, Calvinism and how it played out in the various countries that embraced it, persecutions (including the Inquisition, the burning of witches, and the martyrdom of dissidents from both the Catholic and Lutheran churches), the Enlightenment, the Church of England, Lutheranism in Scandinavia, Methodism, church design, sermon style, music, art, and architecture, the effect of the printing press, biblical translations, Anabaptism, pietism, and more.
Inspired by Counter Reformation
zeal, the establishment of the Guarani Missions in the early 1600s was one of the most noteworthy efforts of the Jesuits in the New World.
As with so much in the Reformation and the Catholic movement known as the Counter Reformation
, this dogmatism led to a more moderate reaction.
In this respect, the Counter Reformation
in Milan in the later sixteenth century was dominated by the ideas and teachings of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo (see Lewis Lockwood, The Counter-Reformation and the Masses of Vincenzo Ruffo ).
THE REFASHIONING OF CATHOLICISM, 1450-1700: A REASSESSMENT OF THE COUNTER REFORMATION
The heart of this book is to demonstrate that Catholics, even in the age of the Counter Reformation
, have "maintained traditions of belief and behavior not through single-minded intransigence but by embracing flexibility and change" (4).
In the tyrant king's downfall, for instance, audiences recognized the rejection of Machiavelli's amoralism and an emerging political philosophy more consonant with the prevailing values of the Counter Reformation
The tradition died (at least overtly) in the rationalism of the eighteenth century, when the fire of the Counter Reformation
that had set the Baroque ablaze had been reduced to embers.