Sacred music as public image for Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III; representing the counter-reformation
monarch at the end of the Thirty Years' War.
In a chapter on the Counter-Reformation
in Strasbourg, Leonard argues that the nuns created their own "counter-reformation
" through their negotiations with the city magistrates that allowed them to preserve important elements of their religious life, but at the same time deviated from the Council of Trent's decrees for convents.
The author follows the lead of James Farr and Joan Scott, agreeing with them that refining sexual differences reinforced social order and hierarchy in Counter-Reformation
The book is organized around the remarkable women who guided the convent through distinct phases: (1) the founding in 1535 in the open and decentralized religious climate of pre-Tridentine experimentation, (2) the struggles with the Inquisition and the imposition of episcopal control in the 1550s, (3) the apogee of Counter-Reformation
rigor during Carlo Borromeo's "revolution" as archbishop of Milan from 1565-84, (4) the corresponding brilliant tenure of Sfondrati women (1565-90) who placed the convent at the center of their "family's complex political business" (116) which included the election of an uncle, Niccolo Sfondrati, as Pope Gregory XIV in 1590.
There he began etching histories in the style of local hero Marten van Heemskerck: furtive, calligraphic animations of Counter-Reformation
During the Counter-Reformation
, she became the defender of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic tradition.
He targets his reassessment of the "Counter-Reformation
" at advanced undergraduates and the general public.
His best work is probably his last major novel, Temno (1915; "Darkness"), in which he painted a vivid picture of Bohemia in the grip of the Counter-Reformation
Breaking through conventional periodization of history, historians examine the dynamics of religious renewal and the pastoral efficacy of religious orders from the early 15th to the early 17th centuries, question received verdicts on the role and viability of these ecclesiastical bodies during the period leading up to the Reformation and Counter-Reformation
, and elucidate the mechanisms of religious identity formation in the processes of normative centering connected with reform initiatives undertaken within the religious orders and within the Church at large.
The prodigious muse; women's writing in Counter-Reformation
A more searching comparison with other female religious communities in late medieval Italy, as well as a deeper anchor in the context of Spanish Milan itself, would clarify San Paolo's distinctive piety, social arrangements, and eventual transformation by Counter-Reformation
8); Beroalde de Verville and some Reformation and Counter-Reformation
propaganda, including a stunning map of Rome inside the devil's mouth (chap.