Common carps for breeding in Birzai were brought from Courland
, Prussia and Radzwill's Dzialacichy manor (modern western Belarus) (Karvelis 2009, 232).
In most lexemes in the Courland
Livonian dialect, on which the written language is based, the translative and comitative functions are encoded by the same form, which is why this is given as a single translative-comitative case feature value throughout this study (after Grunthal 2003).
In the early 20th century, Baltic provinces of Courland
, Livland, Estland formed the western border of the Russian Empire that were associated in Russian perception with a German area.
For Riga's commercial elite, relations with their partners in Reval in Estland and Libau in Courland
may have been much more intense than was usual among the Ritterschaften; their identity thus was indeed more "Baltic" than was common among the nobility.
A peat fire in the Courland
region broke out last Tuesday and spread eastwards, with the smoke noticeable in the resort town of Jurmala, more than 100km away in the neighbouring Riga region.
'Should human beings suddenly disappear from the face of the Earth,' author Robert Courland
remarks in his book Concrete Planet, 'the last century of our existence will be clearly discernible one hundred million years in the future by a unique, rust-coloured layer of sediment found all over the planet...
For example, Nicholas bore proud and sonorous titles: 'Nicholas II, by God's grace, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland, Tsar of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Kazan, Astrakhan, Siberia, the Tauric Chersonese, Georgia, Lord of Pskov, Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, Prince of Esthonia, Livonia, Courland
, and Semigallia, Samogitia, Bielostok, Karelia, Tver, Yougoria, Perm, Viatka...
Few buildings remain from the city's Golden Age as the capital of the Duchy of Courland
between the 16th and 18th centuries and subsequently as the capital of the Russian Province of the same name.
The fight the north-western region of Courland
was to become one of the bloodiest of the Second World War.
Earlier in July, Thurloe had notified the Dutch ambassadors that arrangements should go ahead to comprehend the Swiss cantons, Hanse cities, Oldenburg, Anhalt, Holstein, and Courland
. The account in Verbael indicates that he invited the ambassadors to submit the wording and wrote on 12 July approving a draft but proposing that each confederate should have a separate instrument of inclusion, which when supplied would be 'signed in such form as is usual'.
Tirpitz tried by various publicist ventures to remind the nation of past naval legacies, those of the Vikings and the Hansa, of the Welsers and Fuggers, of Jacob of Courland
and the Great Elector.