Further tests to assist with the diagnosis include antinuclear antibody profile, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, C-reactive protein, cryoglobulins
, serum complement, hepatitis B and C profile, HIV, venereal disease research laboratory test and uric acid levels.
are immunoglobulins that precipitate in vitro at temperatures below 37[degrees]C, producing organ damage through two main mechanisms: vascular sludging and immune-mediated mechanisms.
In addition, M-proteins, especially those that are also cryoglobulins
, can precipitate and cause erroneous measurements via several methods (1).
Studies for c-ANCA, anti-proteinase 3 (PR3), anti-GBM, cryoglobulins
, complement levels, anti-nuclear antibody, rheumatoid factor, hepatitis A, B, and C, and creatinine kinase were normal.
Such patients have multiple serological abnormalities like anticardiolipin antibodies, cryoglobulins
, and hypocomplementemia.
A series of serum laboratory assessments were obtained including; a CBC with peripheral smear, cryoglobulins
, cryofibrinogens, C-reactive protein (CRP), protein S activity and antigen, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, activated protein C (APC) resistance assay, prothrombin gene mutation assay, factor V Leiden assay, factor VIII activity level and a D-dimer assay.
also can polymerize and form unusual microtubular structures, but the other clinicopathologic features of the disease should be present, permitting separation from this disorder (see "Cryoglobulinemic Nephropathy").
Plasma samples were thawed, and each sample was centrifuged to remove cryoglobulins
Sedimentation rate, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), rheumatoid factor (RF), cryoglobulins
, anticentromere antibody, Scl-70, antiphospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies were all normal or negative.
Symptomatic MC has been observed in up to 21 percent of patients with HCV, and the percentage of HCV patients with detectable cryoglobulins
may be as high as 54 percent .
Q The beginning of our procedure for testing a blood sample for cryoglobulins
calls for heating the drawtube at 37[degrees]C for at least one hour.
In this syndrome, cryoglobulins
composed of HCV immune complexes, immunoglobulins, rheumatoid factor, and complement are deposited in tissues.