However, more recently Gershwin (2005) established the genus Alatina for all such cubomedusae
, characterized by a tall and narrow bell, four crescentric, gastric phacellae, four "wing-like" pedalia, and three to four bifurcating to palmate velarial canals per octant.
The coordinated tentacular response in cubomedusae is similar to the crumpling response of hydromedusae that can be induced by stimulation of an exumbrellar conducting system and involves an excitable epithelium (Mackie and Passano, 1968; Spencer, 1975, 1978; Josephson and Schwab, 1979; Mackie, 2004b).
Here I provide an electrophysiological examination of conduction systems that underlie three types of acute responses in cubomedusae, to help understand the subsystem components within the cubomedusan nervous system.
Finally, this study will form a basis of comparison for a similar examination of ectodermal networks in cubomedusae
to highlight both common and unique features between these two medusoid groups.
Nematocysts of Chiropsalmus quadrumanus with comments on the systematic status of the Cubomedusae
are fast swimmers that are capable of rapid, accurate turning, up to 180[degrees] in as few as two swim contractions (Garm et al.
Table 1 Cnidarian jellyfish species used for feeding experiments of phyllosoma larvae Class Order Species Number of Experiments Scyphozoa* Semaeosiomeae Aurelia aurita > 10 Aurelia aurita > 10 (ephyraev and young medusae) Chrysaora pacifiea > 10 Sanderia malayensis 4 Rhizostomeae Mastigias papua 2 Nemopilema nomurai Hydrozoa Anthomedusae Nemopsis dofleini 4 Spirocodon saltalor > 10 Velella velella 1 Leptomedusae Aequorea S coerulescens Siphonophorae Physalia physafis 1 Cubozoa Cubomedusae
Carybdea rastoni 2 * Bell diameters of scyphozoan medusae used for the examinations ranged from 30 to 100 mm.
Occurence of the order Cubomedusae
(Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in New Zealand: collection and laboratory observations of Carybdea sivickisi.
Among cnidarians, cubomedusae
are unique due to their potent sting and strong swimming ability, but it is their eyes and visual behavior that have received a great deal of recent attention (Larson, 1976; Hamner, 1994; Matsumoto, 1995; Martin, 2002, 2004; Coates, 2003; Garm et al.
are remarkable among cnidarians for their complex, lensed eyes and the rapidity and accuracy of their swimming adjustments in response to visual stimuli.
Studies on the Stauromedusae and Cubomedusae
, with special reference to their metamorphosis.
Chidarians are obligate predators, and all, with the possible exception of the cubomedusae
, are passive predators.