Scyphozoa, Hydrozoa ve Cubozoa
sinifi uyeleri genelde denizanalari olarak bilinir ve zararli denizanalari cogunlukla bu siniflara ait turlerden olusur.
The seasonal cycle of Scyphozoa and Cubozoa
in Georgia estuaries.
To exclude regions of uncertain homology of 16S across Cubozoa
, Gblocks ver.
Belonging to the macro and mega-zooplankton, medusoid forms such as Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa
are only eventually registered in common zooplankton samples due to the size of individuals and their low density.
Since Metchnikoff's (1893) classic demonstration of a foreign-body response in Scyphozoa (translucent jellyfish), we have made little additional progress in identifying the primary immune cells in cnidaria in general--hydrozoa, anthozoa, schyphozoa, and cubozoa
Neural condensation into the nerve rings may be associated with a more diverse behavioral repertoire in the Hydrozoa and Cubozoa
, allowing more rapid and accurate behavioral adjustments.
Table 1 Cnidarian jellyfish species used for feeding experiments of phyllosoma larvae Class Order Species Number of Experiments Scyphozoa* Semaeosiomeae Aurelia aurita > 10 Aurelia aurita > 10 (ephyraev and young medusae) Chrysaora pacifiea > 10 Sanderia malayensis 4 Rhizostomeae Mastigias papua 2 Nemopilema nomurai Hydrozoa Anthomedusae Nemopsis dofleini 4 Spirocodon saltalor > 10 Velella velella 1 Leptomedusae Aequorea S coerulescens Siphonophorae Physalia physafis 1 Cubozoa
Cubomedusae Carybdea rastoni 2 * Bell diameters of scyphozoan medusae used for the examinations ranged from 30 to 100 mm.
Medusozoans (Cnidaria: Cubozoa
, Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) of the Gulf of Mexico.
The class Cubozoa
(Werner, 1973) contains two families, of which we used three representatives of the family Carybdeidae (Tamoya haplonema, Carybdea marsupialis, and Tripedalia cystophora) and one member of the family Chiropdropidae (Chiropsalmus quadrumanus).
However, recent phylogenetic analyses of Cnidaria based on morphology (Marques and Collins, 2004) and molecular data (Collins, 2002) suggest that Stauromedusae is not more closely related to the scyphozoan taxa Coronatae, Rhizostomeae, and Semaeostomeae (herein united as Scyphozoa, following Marques and Collins, 2004) than it is to Cubozoa
They have been isolated from representatives of all classes, with the exception of the Cubozoa
where peptide studies have not yet been conducted; and they have been shown to be functionally important for development (Katsukura et al.
Among extant Cnidaria, the Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals) are thought to be the sister group to a clade comprising the Cubozoa
, Scyphozoa, and Hydrozoa, and it has been argued that the anthozoan body plan most resembles that of the ancestral cnidarians (GrassholT, 1984; Schick, 1991; Bridge et al.