capreolus, Caeculus sp., Neophyllobius sp.) y fitofagos (Aegyptobia sp., Petrobia sp., Cunaxa
capreolus) (De Leon, 1958; Zaher et al, 1975; Otto, 1993; Walter et al, 2009; Vieira de Souza, 2010; Hernandes et al, 2011; Muhammad & Muhammad, 2011; Khanjani et al, 2013; Skvarla et al., 2014), a excepcion de Orthotydeus sp., quien es un organismo saprofago y micetofago, el cual obtiene su alimento de la materia organica en descomposicion presente en el Nido II (Perez-Otero & Mansilla-Vazquez, 1997).
El autor percibe muy bien el giro narrativo que toma la Anabasis tras la muerte de los generales griegos (An.3.1.4) y el cambio total de contexto tras Cunaxa
. Ciertamente a partir de la emboscada que termina con el mando de la tropa mercenaria, la narracion se aproxima gradualmente hacia Jenofonte, quien adquiere protagonismo en la improvisada direccion de los Diez Mil.
(Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and predatory mites, Cunaxa
sp.(Cunaxidae), Paraseiulus talbii (Athias-Henriot), P.
The story is set at the height of the Persian Empire, and the Persians who populate it have a secure basis in Achaemenid history: King Artaxerxes II (405-359 BCE) is the ruler who figures in Xenophon's Anabasis, whose brother, Cyrus the Younger, rebelled against him and lost his life at the Battle of Cunaxa
in 401 BCE; he was the ruler whose health was cared for by Ctesias of Cindus, who worked as a royal physician at the Persian court.
Xenophon rested his 10,000 mercenary Greek troops there on their way back to Athens after the defeat and death of Cyrus of Persia in far-off Cunaxa
in 401 B.C.
But after moving inland and fighting the Battle of Cunaxa
, the Greek army, led by Xenophon, an officer and writer who accompanied the mercenaries and then recorded their trials in the famous work The Anabasis, finds itself stranded--and begins a dangerous journey through enemy territory in Kurdistan and the Armenian mountains during winter to return home by way of the Black Sea.
The army covered long distances until a major battle was fought at Cunaxa
, near Babylon (close to present-day Baghdad).
In retrospect, it becomes clear that at one level the overall structure of the novel reflects a proportional inversion of Xenophon's narrative: the Anabasis gives us a brief and relatively easy anabasis occupying a single book followed by a grueling katabasis of six books, with the battle of Cunaxa
acting as a hinge between the two unequal parts; (8) Callirhoe, by contrast, presents its readers with a grueling anabasis that comprises most of the narrative followed by a brief and easy return journey, with the culminating battle between the Persian king on one side and the Egyptian king and Chaereas on the other joining the two parts.
Though Cyrus's mixed army fought to a tactical victory at Cunaxa
in Babylon (401 BC), Cyrus himself was killed in the battle, rendering the actions of the Greeks irrelevant.
The unifying theme of this book is the use and justification of torture as an instrument of imperial control, and Lincoln bookends his argument with two shocking descriptions, the first Achaemenid: According to Ctesias (in Plutarch Artaxerxes 16.1-4), Artaxerxes II subjected a Persian soldier to the ordeal of the troughs for revealing how Cyrus the Younger died in the battle of Cunaxa
. The second is the American treatment of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib.
The death of Cyrus made useless the victory of Cunaxa