Brooksby, "Effects of cytochalasins
B and D and colchicine on migration of the orneal epithelium," Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol.
Xylaria species is found to produce a variety of secondary metabolites of biological importance namely succinic acids (Klaiklay et al., 2012), xanthones (Healy et al., 2004), terpenoids (Deyrup et al., 2007; Smith et al., 2002), cyclopeptides (Wu et al., 2011), lactones (Jimenez-Romero et al., 2008) and cytochalasins
(Espada et al., 1997).
Aarbakke, "Morphological modifications of apoptosis in HL-60 cells: effects of homocysteine and cytochalasins
on apoptosis initiated by 3deazaadenosine," Virchows Archiv, vol.
Actions of cytochalasins
on the organization of actin filaments and microtubules in a neuronal growth cone.
are a group of toxic fungal metabolites which show marked cytotoxic effects on mammalian cells in tissue culture.
This theory is supported by the localization of microfilaments both in egg microvilli (Burgess and Schroeder, 1977; Spudich and Amos, 1979; Tilney and Jaffe, 1980) and in sperm acrosomes (Tilney, 1975, 1978; Tilney et al., 1973); by the fertilization modifications of microfilament distribution, particularly in fertilization cones (Longo, 1978b, 1980; Tilney and Jaffe, 1980; Schatten and Schatten, 1980; Cline and Schatten, 1986); and by the blockage of fertilization by the inhibition of microfilament polymerization using cytochalasins
(Gould-Somero et al., 1977; Longo, 1978a; Byrd and Perry, 1980; Schatten and Schatt en, 1980).
, termed phomachalasins A-D (11-14), were isolated and characterised as three closely related 26- oxa and one new cytochalasan.
A number of natural phytochemicals (Katdare et al., 1998) and natural antioxidants such as C-Phycocyanin (Subhashini et al., 2004; Pardhasaradhi et al., 2005), Anthocyanidins (Hou et al., 2001; Meiers et al., 2001; Nagase et al., 1998; Bomser et al., 1996; Kamei et al., 1995), Curcumin (Kuo et al., 1996; Jiang et al., 1996), fungal cytochalasins
(Nagasawa et al., 2000) etc., were shown to have anticancer properties.
(2004) isolated two phytotoxic compounds namely cytochalasin
B and dihydrocytochalasins from culture filtrates of D.
Early studies also demonstrated that growth cone motility depends on actin filament assembly (Yamada and Wessells, 1973), and a critical role for actin assembly in axonal guidance emerged when axons in the developing grasshopper nervous system were shown to lose all path-finding capabilities upon treatment with cytochalasin
(Bentley and Toroion-Raymond, 1986).
Six known compounds, cytochalasin
J, dechlorogriseofulvin, demethylharzianic-acid, griseofulvin, harzianic acid and 2-hexylidene-3-methyl-succinic acid were identified from a rapid dereplication technique for fungal metabolites using an in-house UV library.