cracked a 56-key code within 4 months, which demonstrated for the first time the understanding of traditional encryption standard (DES) with DNA computing
. Afterwards, the development of DNA cryptography research became a hot topic of research.
With the development of bioinformatics, some image encryption algorithms based on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) have emerged since Adleman completed the first experiment on DNA computing
, due to the properties of DNA: massive parallelism, huge storage, and ultralow power consumption [29-34].
In 1994, a Turing Award winner Professor Adleman published an article in (Science) that solved a small-scale Hamiltonian path problem with a DNA experiment , which is regarded as the pioneering work in the field of DNA computing
. As DNA computing
has a huge advantage for parallel processing, this technique was subsequently advanced rapidly.
In recent years, image encryption technology based on DNA computing
has been extensively used by scholars, but work is still at the initial stages of research.
Meanwhile, DNA computing
has been of great concern recently.
The background of this new cryptography technique is DNA computing
. DNA computing
is a novel computational model which is based on some vital chemical reaction.
Suresh Senapaty, executive director and CFO, Wipro, speaking on 'Digital India: Global Impact' presented glimpses into the future world of technology, and highlighted the following new trends -- DNA computing
(using DNA logic gates); Artificial Intelligence; the Internet of Things, 3D Manufacturing and Hydraulic Fracturing.
There is in fact another method of DNA computing
, known as the sticker systems.
This idea of solving problems (creating every possible candidate solution and then checking in parallel if they meet all required conditions) is called computing by carving and recently it is utilized not only in DNA computing
Xu, "A membrane evolutionary algorithm for DNA sequence design in DNA computing
," Chinese Science Bulletin, vol.
As traditional cryptographic methods built upon mathematical and theoretical models are vulnerable to attacks, the concept of using DNA computing
in the field of cryptography has been identified as a possible technology that brings forward a new hope for unbreakable algorithms.
In 1994, Adleman introduced the DNA computing
as a new method of parallel computing .