He describes the history of America's past party systems, including Hamilton's Federalists and Jefferson's Democratic-Republicans
, the Whigs and Jackson's Democrats, the Civil War parties of North and South, the Populist and Progressive Era parties that reformed America out of the Gilded Age, and the New Deal-era parties of today; the great debates in history in which people fought over how America should change, what it should become, and how it should address new problems and concerns; and how each realignment gets rid of an old system in a moment of crisis and forms a new party system to deal with new problems.
(In 1812, Massachusetts Democratic-Republicans
, serving Gov.
It was in response to then Governor Elbridge Gerry's redrawing of a Massachusetts district that was designed to elect Democratic-Republicans
and the Federalists reigned.
Another chapter lauds the anti-slavery credentials of the Federalists and castigates Jefferson's Democratic-Republicans
. "A careful analysis of all roll call votes," Finkelman suggests, would show Federalist members of Congress more likely to support anti-slavery legislation, but he offers no such analysis.
However, the legislation resulted in economic problems in the United States, Americans sarcastically saying "Ograbme" for sailors on the high seas, and diminished support for Democratic-Republicans
in the 1808 election.
The party was named the 'Democratic-Republicans
' and 'Democratic' is preferable.
Hamilton's side became known as Federalists, Jefferson's as Democratic-Republicans
. In 1796, in the first contested presidential election, Jefferson faced off against the Federalist John Adams.
who shared a more nationalistic mindset were pleased with Madison's position on the bank issue in his Annual Message in December 1815.
Although generally well-received there was criticism from Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans
that the tours were too monarchical.
Elbridge Gerry signed off on districts designed to protect the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans
and minimize the Federalists.
As parts of Massachusetts were strong supporters of the rival Federalist Party, in February 1812 Governor Gerry passed a new law to redraw the voting senatorial districts of the state to make sure the Democratic-Republicans