From Rosewood in Florida to Greenwood in Oklahoma, American history is replete with stories of communities of free and enslaved Black people being terrorized and killed in violent attacks--or rebelling against oppression under the leadership of the likes of Denmark Vesey
and Nat Turner.
1799 Denmark Vesey
, a slave, wins $1,500 in a Charleston, South Carolina, city lottery and uses the money to purchase his freedom.
By the third decade of the nineteenth century, Denmark Vesey
's plot, David Walker's call to revolution, and the emergence of William Lloyd Garrison's newspaper The Liberator had prepared a new generation of reformers to adopt an immediatist mindset.
's Garden: Slavery and Memory in the Cradle of the Confederacy.
The married historians' book Denmark Vesey
's Garden is a remarkable exploration of the radically different memories of antebellum Charleston that coexisted for 100 years.
In "Black Slaves Who Could Have Been American Founders," Andrew Bernstein examines three major slave rebellions in early America, showing that the men who led them--Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey
, and Nat Turner--did so explicitly on the same principles that the Founding Fathers revolted against Great Britain.
The scene of the 2015 tragedy unfolds in the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, co-founded by Denmark Vesey
, a free black tradesman in Charleston around 1816.
It burned in the 1800s during a controversy surrounding Denmark Vesey
, one of the church's organizers, who was the leader of a major slave rebellion in that city
This particular church, which was founded in 1816, had its own grim history: when a founder, Denmark Vesey
, tried to organise a slave revolt in 1822, he was caught, and white landowners burned the church down in revenge.
- one of the founders - led a failed slave revolt in 1822, which resulted in the church being burned to the ground by whites.
One of its founders, Denmark Vesey
, tried to organise a slave revolt in 1822.
Those killed included Denmark Vesey
, a church founder and a supposed leader of the uprising.