Based on the fact that excessive exposure to fluoride causes dental fluorosis
and lower amount makes toothpaste ineffective against dental caries, so the amount of fluoride in the toothpaste must be regulated.
The adverse effects of fluoride include dental fluorosis
and skeletal fluorosis, and it has effects on red blood cell wall.
which manifests as discolouration of teeth and skeletal fluorosis which are endemic are most early biomarkers of fluoride toxicity.
We know that the chronic and sustained presence of the F- ion in plasma increases the likelihood of adhering to tissues in the mineralization process, (10) but there is the misperception that the hypomineralization observed in dental fluorosis
is the only consequence of the excessive addition of F- in enamel.
The scope of the survey also includes a validation study of dental fluorosis
diagnosis among eight years old and fluoride intake study for children of four year old.
Disruption of normal enamel formation is stated (in the 1997 report) not to be "of Public Health Significance" if the F concentration in drinking water is below 2mg/liter (2ppm), and reports of disfiguring dental fluorosis
with staining and pitting of the enamel in areas with 1C.
is caused by an excessive fluoride intake during tooth formation.
Studies have shown that excessive ingestion of fluoride by children during their teethforming years causes dental fluorosis
, an irregular mineralization of the tooth enamel marked by white spots,' explained one brand on its website.
Gupta and Ayoob apply the principles and methods of environmental engineering to the geo-genic pollution of drinking water with fluoride They cover a global perspective on fluoride in drinking water, a scenario of fluoride pollution, dental fluorosis
, skeletal fluorosis, stress effects of fluoride on humans, fluoride in the environment and its toxicological effects, an overview of defluoridation techniques, and a case study of the adsorptive removal of fluoride.
Prevalence of dental fluorosis
in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years.
63) Again, fluoridation promoters say not to worry, because the only adverse developmental effect from a chronic intake of fluoride above its UL is dental fluorosis
, a cosmetic not a health issue.
Several studies in African countries have found a high prevalence of dental fluorosis
even among populations that consume drinking water with relatively low fluoride content [11--14].