It has been also reported that the serum lipid concentrations in humans were not affected after treatment with diacylglycerol
oil (Yuan et al., 2010).
Later, phosphatidate phosphatases (PAPs), as lipin1, can remove the phosphate group from PA and produce diacylglycerol
Huarte  found that the content of diacylglycerol
and sphingomyelin in MSCs derived from bone marrow was higher, while the content of ceramide was relatively low.
As known, in hyperglycemic condition, the decrease in AMPK activity is associated with an increase of diacylglycerol
(DAG) production that activates PKC and NADPH-oxidase causing an abnormal production of ROS [68, 69].
Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (similarly to phosphatidylinositol, Ptdlns) can generate second messengers such as diacylglycerol
(DAG) and phosphatidic acid, which in turn is a precursor of DAG, lysophosphatidic acid, and arachidonic acid, through three major catabolic pathways, respectively, mediated by specific phospholipases of type C (PLC) and D (PLD), acting at the two distinct phosphodiester bonds of the phospholipid headgroup and by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in the deacylation reaction cascade .
Indeed, in vitro macrophage AMPK inhibition by either RNAi or expression of AMPK dominant negative or deletion of the AMPK [beta]1 subunit is associated with enhanced LPS-induced TNF-[alpha], IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 levels, diacylglycerol
accumulation and PKC activation [72, 74].
Activation of TRPC6 calcium channels by diacylglycerol
(DAG)-containing arachidonic acid: a comparative study with DAG-containing docosahexaenoic acid.
Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol
are generated by activated PLC.
It involves accumulation of diacylglycerol
and activation of novel PKC isoforms PKC[epsilon] and PKC[theta] [5, 6].
CDPDAG: cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol; CL: cardiolipin; DAG: diacylglycerol
; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; IMM: inner mitochondrial membrane; IMS: intermembrane space; MAM: mitochondria-associated membrane domain of the ER; MICOS: mitochondrial contact site protein complex; MLCL: monolysocardiolipin; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane; PA: phosphatidic acid; PC: phosphatidylcholine; PG: phosphatidylglycerol; PGP: phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate; PI: phosphatidylinositol; PS: phosphatidylserine.
Ginsberg, "The role of acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol
acyltransferase (DGAT) in energy metabolism," Annals of Medicine, vol.
Binding of these ligands to the FGFR1 leads to binding and activation of PLC[gamma] and subsequently to the production of diacylglycerol
and an increase in cytosolic [Ca.sup.2+] .