Filippenko, "The importance of atmospheric differential refraction
in spectrophotometry," Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, vol.
In close vicinity of zenith, planar approximation of image coordinates is reasonably accurate (error in zenith distance z < 5 milliarcseconds if z < 0.25 dg and perpendicularity of image plane to zenith direction is within 0.25 dg); optical distortions and differential refraction in so small field also are very small.
Such determination of F incorporates also part of differential refraction and distortion effects and changes in focus distance caused by focusing.
Dispersion is the 'smearing out' of light of different colours due to differential refraction
as it passes through our atmosphere.
Iridescence - a lustrous rainbow-like play of colour caused by differential refraction
of light waves - has just been detected in the fur of golden moles.
* Chromatic Aberrations--caused by differential refraction
of different wavelengths of light
(In fact, I measured the amount of differential refraction
in right ascension to be about 0.0018" per minute of time from the moment of transit.) Jean Meeus's Astronomical Algorithms (Willmann-Bell, 1999) was useful for determining the transit time of the star, the orbital longitude of Earth on a given date, and so forth.
The algorithm of determination of local differential refraction parameters in short results from the following double difference carrier phase measurements on L1 and L2 that can be expressed as:
Goral, Wl.: 1997, Numerical estimation of differential refraction correction in GPS measurements, Reports on Geodesy, No.
Liquid chromatography was conducted on a Waters high performance liquid chromatograph apparatus with a differential refraction
index model 410 and a diodes array UV model 996 connected in series equipped with Ultrahydrogel columns.
Many skeptics dismissed the bicolored aspect as the effect of atmospheric prismatic dispersion, also known as differential refraction
. Air has a higher index of refraction for light of short wavelengths, so rays of blue light are bent more than rays of red light.
As the very last sliver of the Sun's upper limb sinks into the distant horizon, differential refraction
in the Earth's atmosphere can cause it to turn bright green.