Of those, not only 16 amino acids, but also the contents of 6 dipeptides
also increased over the duration (Table 3).
Metabolites involved in these groups included LCFAs and PUFAs, eicosanoids and hydroxy fatty acid [e.g., 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), 12-Hydroxyeicosapentaenoate (12-HEPE)], lysolipids, and dipeptides
. Metabolites in the purine metabolism (hypo)xanthine/inosine pathway (xanthine and hypoxanthine), and the taurine metabolism pathway [taurine and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH)] followed a pattern similar to that of the lipid and peptide metabolism around the Olympics.
For effective absorption, whey protein must be broken down into tripeptides and dipeptides
by endogenous peptidase within approximately 90 min of consumption; otherwise, the protein goes undigested and excreted from the body.
Das, Organogelation and hydrogelation of low-molecular-weight amphiphilic dipeptides
: pH responsiveness in phase-selective gelation and dye removal, Langmuir, 25, 8639 (2009).
CNP is a [Mn.sup.+2] dependent protease, which hydrolyzes dipeptides
such as L-carnosine, preferentially hydrophobic dipeptides
including prolyl amino but has a strong preference for Cys-Gly (Teufel et al., 2003).
Like amino acids, dipeptides
(two amino acids joined by a peptide bond) are transported into roots (Komarova et al 2008), as demonstrated by the presence of intact dipeptide
molecules in plants grown in axenic culture (Paungfoo-Lonhienne et al.
The complexes 1-3 were converted into the corresponding aqua derivatives, and their catalytic activities in the hydrolysis of the N-acetylated Ac-L-His-Gly and Ac-L-Met-Gly dipeptides
Gorbitz, "Nanotube formation by hydrophobic dipeptides
," Chemistry--A European Journal, vol.
PepT1-mediated epithelial transport of dipeptides
and cephalexin is enhanced by luminal leptin in the small intestine.
Kyowa Hakko Bio employs leading-edge fermentation technology to develop innovative manufacturing processes for producing various useful substances and is offering ingredients ranging from amino acids, nucleic acid-related compounds, vitamins, and organic acids to oligosaccharides and dipeptides
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The peak at the lower temperatures seems to be the water generation during the peptide bond formation between deprotected dipeptides
. Another peak at the higher temperatures is supposed to be the water generation during the imide formation.