Type II DNA topoisomerases
are essential; they catalyse topological rearrangements in DNA by breaking and re-joining the DNA backbone in a controlled manner.
and their poisoning by anticancer and antibacterial drugs.
The critical involvement of DNA topoisomerases
in various essential cellular processes has led to the development of topoisomerase poisons for use as antibacterial [192, 193] or anticancer therapeutics [194, 195].
Kasparkova et al., "Inhibition of DNA topoisomerases
I and II and growth inhibition of HL-60 cells by novel acridine-based compounds," European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol.
There are 12 chapters: modulation of host cell miRNA expression during Leishmania infection and emergence of miRNA as a new therapeutic molecule; heat shock proteins of Leishmania; role of iron in Leishmania-macrophage interaction; oxidative and nitrosative stress response in Leishmania; cell death in a kinetoplastic parasite, the Leishmania spp.; elucidating the strategies of immune evasion by Leishmania; role of STAT signaling in immunity to Leishmaniasis; Leishmania modulates toll-like receptor signaling in macrophages; role of T-cells in Leishmania infection; vaccine biology of Leishmania infection; inhibitors of DNA topoisomerases
as potential anti-leishmanial agents; mechanism of drug resistance in visceral Leishmaniasis.
After damage of target molecules (DNA, microtubules, DNA topoisomerases
etc.), they regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, proliferation and apoptosis and thereby ultimately influence the fate of tumor cells on death or survival, even if the actual treatment targets are damaged.
In vitro quinolones susceptibility analysis of chinese mycoplasma bovis isolates and their phylogenetic scenarios based upon QRDRs of DNA topoisomerases
revealing a unique transition in ParC.
Molecular Biology of DNA Topoisomerases
. Boca Raton FL: CRC Press: 87-93 (1993).
McHugh, "Modylation of topoisomerase targeted drugs by minor-groove binding agents," in DNA Topoisomerases
in Cancer, M.
play important functions in transmission and expression of genetic information, because these enzymes carry out critical roles in DNA replication, transcription and recombination, as well as chromosome condensation and segregation (Colley et al.
It may also inhibit cell cycle by arresting the cell at the G2/M phase, as well as inhibiting tyrosine kinases, DNA topoisomerases
, and anti-angiogenesis, decreasing oxidative DNA damage and lowering prostate cancer risk.
Genistein has numerous biological activities including inhibition of tyrosine kinase and DNA topoisomerases
I and II, antioxidant activity and estrogenic activity.