It has been proved that NMDA receptors interact with dopamine systems (10) such that dopaminergic systems
are modified by NMDA receptors (11).
In addition, an interaction between opioidergic and dopaminergic systems
has been shown in the dorsal hippocampus, a region rich in opioid neurons and receptors  and that receives dopaminergic projections from the substantia nigra and from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), in an experimental model formalin-induced orofacial pain.
Interactions between the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems
for determining fatigue
Several studies point to the deleterious effects of ATR on the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems
Several studies have supported this idea: deficiency in dopaminergic systems
of the putamen and substantia nigra in a postmortem study (4), reversibility of clinical and electrophysiological findings after dopaminergic treatments (5), and functional imaging studies (6) suggest the involvement of the dopaminergic pathways at the level of the brainstem and basal ganglia.
The effects of clozapine on exploratory and anxiety-related behaviors in the neonatal mice administered with MK-801 may explain the potential underlying mechanisms in which dopaminergic systems
(30-33) These studies described interactions between pineal melatonin and both the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems
, and suggested that melatonin has potential modulator effects on both of these systems; cell bodies and associated behavioral effects.
Carey, "The intrarenal renin-angiotensin and dopaminergic systems
: control of renal sodium excretion and blood pressure," Hypertension, vol.
Longitudinal section of the mouse brain (top) and diagram of interactions between the endocannabinoid, GABAergic and dopaminergic systems
during voluntary physical exercise (bottom)
The amounts of these ingredients varied according to individualized assessment and responses to the Neurotransmitter Questionnaire (Miller & Miller 2008), which identified potential impairment of serotonergic, endorphinergic, and dopaminergic systems
. While each patient was provided a form of oral amino acids and nutrients, the actual ingredients and in many cases the quantities varied and as such the altered formula was generic (Brown, Blum & Trachtenberg 1990; Blum et al.
And the involvement of the 5-HT receptor subtypes, the noradrenergic and the dopaminergic systems
in the effect of FRA in FST were also studied.
In the context of the many research breakthroughs concerning the basal ganglia over the past few years, physiologists, neurologists, and other medical specialists explore interactions between glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems
in that region of the brain.