Also, data reported from a Draize test
with undiluted N-9 indicate that it is severely irritating to the eyes of rabbits (2).
Bacchav and Patravale (37) created a topical formulation of meloxicam demonstrating physicochemical stability, excellent in vivo skin penetration, and a lack of skin irritation using the Draize test
. The mechanism of the topical delivery of NSAIDs is still unclear but it is believed that local accumulation of the drug in target tissues could occur either by direct penetration or via redistribution through systemic circulation.
This protocol is validated by ECVAM (the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods) and accepted by OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) (TG 439) as a non-animal alternative to the rabbit Draize test
. It is using 5% Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a positive control and the endpoint of the study is cellular viability measured by MTT colorimetric assay.
Jacaruso, "Evaluation of primary ocular irritation: alternatives to the Draize test
," in Ocular Therapeutics and Drug Delivery, R.
Dear EarthTalk: is the "Draize Test
" using live animals still used to test cosmetics?
Even supposedly simple targets for replacement, such as the Draize test
for eye irritation, have proved difficult to model in vitro and progress through successful external validation despite major efforts by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternatives (ECVAM), industry trade associations, individual companies, and academia.
One commonly used procedure is the Draize Test
, which is used to test household products for harmful chemicals.
After helping cancel animal tests that Amnesty International (of all groups!) had been running on the effects of torture, Spira were after larger game--the Draize test
. Cosmetics companies worldwide were dripping chemicals into the eyes of live rabbits, an unspeakably painful process for which Spira ultimately helped find humane alternatives.
13 SCIENCE, the researchers reported using their biosensor to screen a panel of eye irritants previously evaluated by the Draize Test
, a consumer safety test in which chemicals are applied to the eyes of rabbits.
The isolated chicken eye test to replace the Draize test
Replacing animal tests such as the classic Draize test
for ocular irritancy, described above, "used to be considered a flaky, humane idea," says Henry Spira, a leading spokesman for the movement against animal testing.
In the Draize test
, several features of the exposed animal eye are measured including cornea damage, conjunctivae damage, irreversibility of the observed damage and a few others.