trilobata followed the order root > stem >leaves: 83-87 % in roots, 11-14 % in stems, and 2-3 % in leaves (Figure 1), similar to what was reported for Echinochloa
crus-galli (Peng et al., 2017).
nigra in the laboratory and fed them on brown sugar and buds of Echinochloa
colona (L.) Link (Poaceae), resulting in fecundity of 29 eggs per female.
In Study 2, the following weeds were identified: Oryza sativa, barnyard grass (Echinochloa
spp.), goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] and Panicum maximum (Poaceae Family); rice flatsedge (Cyperus iria L.) and Cyperus esculentus (Cyperaceae family); joint vetch (Aeschynomene denticulata Rudd.) (Fabaceae family); and alligator weed [Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb] (Amaranthaceae family).
It includes lemongrass, Chinese date, Bombax costatum (Silk cotton tree); Dichrostachys cinereal (Sicklebush) and Echinochloa
pyrimidalis (Antelope grass).
In irrigated rice cultivation, the intensive use of herbicides inhibiting the enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS) has favored the selection of biotypes of resistant weeds worldwide; among them, those of barnyard grass (Echinochloa
crusgalli) (Heap, 2017).
nicaraguensis, present in the complex of weeds of the Asteraceae family (Ecliptaprostrata L.), Cyperaceae (Cyperus rotundus L.), Cyperaceae (Fimbristylis littoralis L.), Poaceae (Echinochloa
colona Link), in the rice production areas, in Panama.
The tropical grasses Paspalum virgatum and Echinochloa
polystachya, prevalent in contaminated wetlands, possessing rhizospheres colonized by beneficial bacteria (Rivera-Cruz, 2011).
Species members of Brachiaria-Desmostachya included Brachiaria ramose, Desmostachya bipinnata, Echinochloa
colonum, Cynodon dactylon and Conyza bonariensis.
(2012) usaron Echinochloa
pyramidalis a escala piloto y encontro una remocion del 49% de DQO y [DBO.sub.5] en los humedales con vegetacion, y menores de 28,0% en los sistemas control (sin vegetacion).
tectorum MRE [Cheat Grass] Echinochloa
Barnyardgrass is a principle rice weed globally, along with other closely related Echinochloa
species, and thrives in the flooded rice production system .
Most common plant species included Setaria faberi, Setaria pumila, and Echinochloa