As we all know, EPA can be metabolized to form eicosanoids
such as prostaglandins that have important antiinflammatory functions.
Omega-3 fatty acids, especially those found in fish, contain eicosanoids
, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
EPA and DHA omega-3s produce profound shifts from the pro-inflammatory eicosanoids
to protective, anti-inflammatory, vessel-dilating eicosanoids
Inflammation itself arises from myriad etiologic pathways, with multiple inflammatory mediators potentially involved, including histamines, cytokines, eicosanoids
(for example, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes), complement cascade components, kinins, fibrinopeptide enzymes, nuclear factor-kappa B, and free radicals.
LA is metabolized to AA which is a precursor of inflammatory eicosanoids
such as PGE2, TXA2 and LTB4.
They also interfere with maturation and differentiation of the stratum corneum and inhibit production of proinflammatory eicosanoids
, reactive species (ROS and RNS), and cytokines, thus influencing the inflammatory response and possibly wound healing [35-38].
After activating the column, the samples were passed and the eicosanoids
were eluted from the column with 1 mL of water, 1 mL of ether, and 2 mL of methyl formate.
In terms of signal transduction, the phospholipase [A.sub.2] ([PLA.sub.2]) reaction, which hydrolyzes the sn-2 position of phospholipids to yield fatty acids and lysophospholipids, has been considered to be of particular importance, since arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4), one of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) released from membrane phospholipids by [PLA.sub.2], is metabolized by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) to lipid mediators including prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs), which are often referred to as eicosanoids
The first phase is mediated through the release of histamine, serotonin, and kinins whereas, the second phase is known to be influenced by the lipid-derived eicosanoids
(prostaglandins, leukotrienes, etc.,) with a peak at 180 min.
Direct clinical evidence shows that among the derived eicosanoids
produced by aspirin acetylation are the lipoxin [A.sub.4] ([LXA.sub.4]), which is vasodilatory, and the leukotrienes C4 and [D.sub.4] ([LTC.sub.4], [LTD.sub.4]), which are potent vasoconstrictors.
At the site of inflammation, the activated inflammatory cells release chemical mediators (eicosanoids
, cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide, etc.) that induce tissue damage and augmented oxidative stress and reactive species (superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, etc.).
The ligands of several PPARs include serial compounds and endogenous lipids, such as FFAs and eicosanoids