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where D is electric flux density vector, [rho]V is volume density of space charge, E is electric field strength vector, V is potential, V' is volume, W is energy, q is electric charge, U is voltage, A is surface area and dA is area element vector.
Similarly, the integral of electric flux density over a surface is the total flux through the surface, which has units of charge.
and the magnetic field intensity, electric flux density and electric field by the following equation