Moderated by Robert Lochhead of the University of Southern Mississippi, Session D (Hair: New Methodologies) will include: Yan Zhou (International Specialty Products), "Characterization of Hair Damage and its Effect on Hair Color Fading and the Routes for Color Protection from Shampoo Stripping;" Renee Bolden, (Procter & Gamble), "Flow Cell Microscopy: A Novel Method to Visualize Product Deposition on Hair;" Susan Daly (Johnson & Johnson Consumer Products), "Physical and Chemical Effects of Natural Proteins and Hydrolyzates on Hair: Electro-kinetics
and Wettability Prop-erties, Part II;" and Ray Rigoletto (International Specialty Products), "Quantification of Fiber Fragmentation of Hair through Combing as a Measure of Thermal Protection."
Nevertheless, after five years of intense research in electro-kinetics and other micro-fluidic platforms, a commercially successful device based on advanced micro-fluidic technologies has yet to appear in the market.
However, despite the various advantages a micro-fluidic platform based on electro-kinetics offers, various technological obstacles remain before viable products can be realized.
As in single-phase electro-kinetics, AC and DC electro-sprays are found to be quite distinct, with dramatically different aerosol size, charge and flow rates (Yeo et al., 2004, 2005).
With proper designs, a micro-fluidic platform based on electro-kinetics can offer good mixing, high throughput and larger diagnostic sensitivity, as well as portability, in a totally integrated diagnostic kit isolated from the environment save for electrical contacts.
Despite the various undeveloped and desirable technologies, this reviewer believes that a micro-fluidic platform based on electro-kinetics is now sufficiently mature to merit preliminary integration with the much more advanced biosensor and immunoassay technologies.
This review summarizes the current status of micro-fabricated DC and AC electro-kinetic devices.
Of these components, electro-kinetic components held and still hold the most promise.
It is this reviewer's opinion that electro-kinetic components are most profitably integrated into portable chip-scale biosensors and diagnostic kits for the medical and environmental markets.
If this sample needs to be transported across the chip through a micro-channel with a typical cross-section dimensions of 500x500 microns within the allotted 15 min (the total channel volume cannot exceed the sample volume), the necessary linear speed would be in excess of 1 mm/s, a linear flow velocity that still cannot be provided by electro-kinetic pumps with the highest throughput.