Moderated by Robert Lochhead of the University of Southern Mississippi, Session D (Hair: New Methodologies) will include: Yan Zhou (International Specialty Products), "Characterization of Hair Damage and its Effect on Hair Color Fading and the Routes for Color Protection from Shampoo Stripping;" Renee Bolden, (Procter & Gamble), "Flow Cell Microscopy: A Novel Method to Visualize Product Deposition on Hair;" Susan Daly (Johnson & Johnson Consumer Products), "Physical and Chemical Effects of Natural Proteins and Hydrolyzates on Hair: Electro-kinetics
and Wettability Prop-erties, Part II;" and Ray Rigoletto (International Specialty Products), "Quantification of Fiber Fragmentation of Hair through Combing as a Measure of Thermal Protection.
Micro-fluidic flows driven by the centrifugal force of a spinning CD player is also quite limited in application compared to electro-kinetics.
Nevertheless, after five years of intense research in electro-kinetics and other micro-fluidic platforms, a commercially successful device based on advanced micro-fluidic technologies has yet to appear in the market.
Development of the above biosensor technologies has nearly matured and it is an opportune time that they are integrated with the micro-fluidic technologies based on electro-kinetics.
However, despite the various advantages a micro-fluidic platform based on electro-kinetics offers, various technological obstacles remain before viable products can be realized.
As in single-phase electro-kinetics, AC and DC electro-sprays are found to be quite distinct, with dramatically different aerosol size, charge and flow rates (Yeo et al.
With proper designs, a micro-fluidic platform based on electro-kinetics can offer good mixing, high throughput and larger diagnostic sensitivity, as well as portability, in a totally integrated diagnostic kit isolated from the environment save for electrical contacts.
All these devices can, at least in principle, be based on electro-kinetics driven by on-chip electrodes.
Despite the various undeveloped and desirable technologies, this reviewer believes that a micro-fluidic platform based on electro-kinetics is now sufficiently mature to merit preliminary integration with the much more advanced biosensor and immunoassay technologies.
This review summarizes the current status of micro-fabricated DC and AC electro-kinetic devices.
If this sample needs to be transported across the chip through a micro-channel with a typical cross-section dimensions of 500x500 microns within the allotted 15 min (the total channel volume cannot exceed the sample volume), the necessary linear speed would be in excess of 1 mm/s, a linear flow velocity that still cannot be provided by electro-kinetic pumps with the highest throughput.