Molecular mechanism activating Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in regulation of adaptive response to electrophiles
With the strong acid sites in the poly hydroxyl layer of nCOP, electrophiles
could be effectively activated at the curing temperature (Fig.
I propose to use these bifunctional catalysts to promote the dual activation of silyl reagents and suitable electrophiles
A number of signaling pathways, most remarkably those controlled by the transcription factor Nrf2, are activated to counteract accumulating reactive oxygen species and electrophiles
(Aleksunes et al.
2006), and may reflect a uniform mechanism to oxidant stress that is also relevant to other environmental electrophiles
Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli with therapeutic potential based on its activity to up-regulate genes that influence an aerobic cell's ability to protect against oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA-damaging electrophiles
, and radiation.
47) Furthermore, a recent study in cultured liver cancer cells (48) showed that chlorophyllin was one of the most potent inducers of a set of enzymes that protect the cells against potentially harmful oxidants and electrophiles
, two types of unstable molecules that damage tissues and contribute to cancer.
11) During xenobiotic metabolism, the generation of toxic electrophiles
by cytochrome P-450 enzymes leads to increased levels of reactive oxygen species in zone 3.
Its conjugation helps in detoxification by binding electrophiles
that could otherwise bind to proteins or nucleic acids, resulting in cellular damage and genetic mutation .
The generation of superoxides and electrophiles
is a result of antioxidants and xenobiotics metabolism.
Considering that quinone methides are the resonance hybrids between the quinoid and benzenoid structures, and their high reactivity to electrophiles
and nucleophiles, it is evident that the polycondensation mechanism in all catalytic conditions can be explained by their participation.
Phthalocyanines can react with electrophiles
like the isothiazolinones, and deactivate them.