In particular, the cube symmetry defines the charge gauge for the

electroweak interaction. Considering the trajectories of the two cube comprising tetrahedrons, one of which consists of four electrons and another of four positrons, we can develop a full gauge framework for these interactions, yet additionally requiring the existence of neutrinos (with the resulting parity violation) [2].

While this is true of the photon, the force particles in

electroweak interaction are heavier than atoms - that is, heavyweights in the realm of particle physics.

The standard model of particle physics insists that, when the universe was hotter than [10.sup.15] kelvins, the now-separate weak and electromagnetic forces were a single entity called the

electroweak interaction. At earlier times, in the era of grand unification when energies were even higher, the

electroweak interaction was united with the strong nuclear force.

In more recent history the Nobel Laureate and member of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, the late Professor Abdus Salaam contributed to the great puzzle of the Unified Field Theory with his work on the

electroweak interaction of particles, known as the Salam Weinberg Principle.

The twist disclination represents the unification of both interactions under a single "

electroweak interaction".

Nagashima (emeritus, physics, Osaka U., Japan) explains basic concepts and experimental foundations of the the unified theory of the

electroweak interaction and quantum chromodynamics, known as the standard model of elementary particle physics, to graduate students pursuing a career as particle physicists or as physicists in other specialties.

The weak mixing angle [[theta].sub.W], or Weinberg angle, in the successful theory called the Standard Model (SM) of leptons and quarks is considered traditionally as an unfixed parameter of the Weinberg-Salam theory of the

electroweak interaction. Its value of ~30[degrees] is currently determined empirically.

Another approximation relates to the assumed sharp cut-off in the

electroweak interaction at [r.sub.e,2].

In order to obey Kuratowski's theorem, Nature had no choice but to bring in more particles, notably the leptons and the

electroweak interaction bosons.

Many broken symmetries in QFT, such as violation of parity and CP invariance, are linked to either the

electroweak interaction or the physics beyond SM [3-5].

Electric interactions and weak interactions were joined into a common

electroweak interaction in the 1960's by commonly Salam, Glashow, Weinberg, etc.

Pleitez, "SU(3) [cross product] U(1) model for

electroweak interactions," Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, vol.