The subalpine meadows and forests of quaking aspen, Engelmann spruce
and Douglas fir on the Kaibab Plateau are more reminiscent of Yellowstone than the Grand Canyon's desert scrub, and the bison look perfectly at home.
It could be an Engelmann spruce
, subalpine fir or Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine in Colorado, or a foxtail, whitebark or limber pine in the Sierra Nevada.
Transects (n = 83) ranged in length 750-3,539 m (mean = 2,883 [+ or -] 147 m) and were stratified by dominant vegetation type, either ponderosa pine or mixed conifer (includes Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], white fir [Abies concolor], blue spruce [Picea pungens], limber pine [Pinus flexilis], Engelmann spruce
[Picea engelmannii], A.
They included topics related to Holocene plant and vegetation migration, reclassification of white x Engelmann spruce
hybrids as a species for palaeoecological reasons, spring and fall population surveys of Trumpeter Swan migration for 20 years, and archaeological studies.
Snowshoe at Snowmass Weave in and out of Engelmann spruce
stands (mixed with other conifers) and learn about the animals that are out and about in the Rockies in winter--think snowshoe hares, foxes, and pine martens.
Shrinkage from green to ovendry MC (%) Source Species Radial Tangential Wood Handbook Subalpine fir 2.6 7.4 Lodgepole pine 4.3 6.7 Engelmann spruce
3.8 7.1 White spruce Not available Not available Western redcedar 2.4 5.0 Jessome Subalpine fir Not available Not available Lodgepole pine 4.7 6.8 Engelmann spruce
4.2 8.2 White spruce 3.2 6.9 Western redcedar 2.1 4.5 Canfor/Forintek Subalpine fir 3.0 7.2 Table 4.--Summarized MC and density results.
In a mixed lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce
forest in Yellowstone National Park, Cullings's team removed half the needles on naturally reseeded pine seedlings.
The ESSF zone occurs at higher elevations (1,650-2,100 m) and is dominated by closed-canopy forests of Engelmann spruce
Also the growth of blue spruce, Engelmann spruce
, lodge pole pine, Norway pine and others.
"I decided to make sure my work didn't make the situation any worse." Much of the wood Maize mills is from "reclaimed" sources: walnut trees downed in road-building, bug-killed Canadian red cedar and Engelmann spruce
, Sitka spruce salvaged from old logging rafts, and pear trees from demolished orchards.