Sea Otters (Enhydra
lutris sspp.) are a salient example of a keystone species exerting top-down control on ecosystem community structure.
Impacts of sea otter (Enhydra
lutris) predation on commercially important sea cucumbers (Parastichopus californicus) in southeast Alaska.
The sea otter Enhydra
lutris in California, and the marine otter or 'chungungo' Lontra felina (Kreuder et al, 2003; Medina-Vogel et al, 2007) in Chile are among the most vulnerable species to human activites.
gondii has been reported in various wild animals belonging to the family Mustelidae, such as mink (Mustela vison), river otters (Lontra canadensis), southern sea otters (Enhydra
lutris nereis), black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), stone marten (Martes foina), pine marten (Martes martes), ferret (Mustela putorius furo), Eurasian otter otters (Lutra lutra), and polecat (Mustela putorius), using microscopy, in vitro cultivation, and serological methods (6, 13-16).
Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra
lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff.
Sea otters (Enhydra
lutris) and river otters are common to the Gulf of Alaska's coastal areas and paleontological deposits of their bones have been identified as far back as the early Holocene.
Sexual dimorphism in craniomandibular morphology of southern sea otters (Enhydra
There are three recognized subspecies of sea otters: the Russian or Asian sea otter (Enhydra
lutris lutris); the Alaskan or northern sea otter (E.
Mukherjee, "In Vitro Studies on Antioxidant and Iron-chelating Activity of Enhydra
fluctuans Lour," Scientific Culture, vol.
Khanra, "Prophylactic role of Enhydra
fluctuans against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity via anti-apoptotic and antioxidant mechanisms," Redox Report, vol.
It was found that on the average, five times as much UVL reaches the upper dermis of Caucasians when compared with the Afro-Caribbean's.4 The carotene content of the ancient Mongoloids was greater than in the Congoid's and Caucasoid's, which was responsible for their yellowish complexion.5 It was due to their high intake of the plant Enhydra
Fluctuan which has a high content of carotene; it has good nutritional value and it was also used to treat a number of diseases.6
Williams and Siniff (1983) recommended radio transmitters be placed in the intraperitoneal cavity of sea otters Enhydra
lutis to reduce the risk of subcutaneous hemorrhaging, and speculated that this placement would likely not hinder the otter physically or behaviorally.