Quantitation of cellular components of the enteric nervous system
in the normal human gastrointestinal tract-report on behalf of the Gastro 2009 International Working Group.
Assessing the interstitial cells of Cajal, cells of enteric nervous system
and neurotransmitters in slow transit constipation, using immunohistochemistry for CD117, PGP9.5 and serotonin.
The enteric nervous system
functions independently of the central nervous system, secreting enzymes, immune system components, and hormones and relying on neurotransmitters identical to the ones used in the brain.
In addition, as the enteric nervous system
is not altered, the muscular component is likely to have played an important role, together with eosinophilic plexitis (a well-known cause of CIPO that might affect neuroenteric functions) and further muscular impairment by eosinophilic infiltration (9).
These mechanisms are primarily described in the peripheral and central nervous systems, but the same mechanisms are present in the enteric nervous system
The vagus nerve contributes to the bidirectional communication between the enteric nervous system
and the limbic system inside the central nervous system.
Researchers call this connection the brain-gut axis--the endocrine, neural, and neuroimmune pathways that enable communication between the gut, central nervous system, enteric nervous system
, autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
The gastrointestinal (GI) system plays a role in the complex gut-based endocrine system, the enteric nervous system
, and the part of the immune system associated with the intestinal system.
The announcement coincides with an ongoing Phase 1/2a clinical trial, sponsored by Enterin, targeting the accumulation of aS in the enteric nervous system
. The trial is examining the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ENT-01, an oral drug that contains a synthetic derivative of squalamine, to relieve constipation associated with Parkinson's disease.
It is a neuro-endocrine network composed of the CNS, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, enteric nervous system
(ENS).16 Information obtained by peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system and ENS are continuously integrated and processed by the CNS.17 For example, when the autonomic nervous system receives repeated stimulation, the body would be in a sensitive state of defense.
Key words: Hirschsprung's disease, Interstitial cells of Cajal, enteric nervous system
The enteric nervous system
(ENS) plays important roles in the gastrointestinal tract which are governed by the absorption/secretion regulation, motility control and vascular tone.