These results are similar to those found for galls induced by Bystracoccus mataybae on leaflets of Matayba guianensis (Oliveira et al., 2017), galls induced by aphids (Larson, 1998), and galls of Epiblema
strenuana induced on Parthenium hysterophorus (Florentine et al., 2005).
Control of the invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia with Ophraella communa and Epiblema
Literature studies revealed that fungus usually penetrate inside root either through root hairs or directly through epiblema
hysterophorus is currently done by a number of insect species and two rust pathogens, that have been introduced to control this weed: Epiblema
strenuana (stem galling moth), Listronotus setosipennis (stem weevil), Zygogramma bicolorata (leaf beetle), Smicronyx lutulentus (seed weevil), Conotrachelus albocinereus (stem galling weevil), Bucculatrix parthenica (leaf feeding moth), Carmentia ithacae (root feeding moth), Stobaera concinna (sap feeding plant hopper), Platphalonidia mystica, Puccinia abrupta var.
Of the various insects, the leaf-feeding beetle (Zygogramma bicolorata) (Figure 4) and the stem galling moth (Epiblema
strenuana), both imported from Mexico, have shown good potential to control this weed.
Strategies of freeze avoidance in larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema
scudderiana: winter profiles of natural population.
Metabolite mobilization in the stem galls of Parthenium hysterophorus induced by Epiblema
strenuana inferred from the signatures of isotopic carbon and nitrogen and concentrations of total non-structural carbohydrates.
scudderiana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) (Figure 4).
For example, the stiffened ends of Nike's epiblema
hang almost plumb vertical, as does the stand that she holds in her right hand on the lekythos in Providence (Fig.
For example, caterpillars of the olethreutid moth Epiblema
scudderiana (Rickards et al., 1987), the noctuid moth Sesamia cretica (Grubor-Lajsic et al., 1992), the gelechiid moth (Good et al., 1997) and pupae of the papilionid butterfly Papilio xuthus (Takehara and Asahina, 1960; Shimada, 1988) avoid freezing by supercooling.
Larval parasitism by native insects on the introduced stem-galling moth Epiblema
strenuana Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its implications for biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae).