The right epibranchial
bone of the hyoid apparatus was luxated and caudoventrally displaced (Fig 4a and b).
Ladher, "Pax2 modulates proliferation during specification of the otic and epibranchial
placodes," Developmental Dynamics, vol.
Settlement was also recorded on the different part of the body like (hypobranchial gill rake, epibranchial
gill rake, and scaphognathite) and the inner wall of the branchial chambers.
The first ceratobranchial cartilages in ventral position, together with faringobanchial and epibranchial
cartilages in dorsal position, support the gill rays, together with the pseudohyal.
Sakamoto (1984) utilized data on the branchial apparatus in his phylogenetic studies of Pleuronectidae, exploiting seven characters: 5th ceratobranchials, the shape of the 1st epibranchial
, teeth on the 3rd epibranchial
, gill rakers on the upper limb of the branchial arch, spines on gill rakers, shape of gill rakers and bony plates on the branchial arches.
The oyster was closely attached to the left side, covering 60 to 70% of the epibranchial
surface and about 90% of the mesobranchial and metabranchial regions.
Additionally to the above the genus Papiliolebias is characterized by: urohyal, dorsal process branched (also in some species of Pituna); third epibranchial
, uncinate process, forming an angle of 45-60[degrees] with distal process (also in rivulines but not in plesiolebi-asines); posttemporal, ventral process present; opercular region with regular reticulate pattern formed by iridescent colour on middle of scales contrasting with dark orangish brown pigment along entire scale margins (also in Pituna); and humeral region with iridescent blotch (also in Pituna) (Costa 2011).
Distinguishing features: Carapace strongly granulated, forming sharp angle between postfrontal crest and epibranchial
From shared lineage to distinct functions: the development of the inner ear and epibranchial
Teeth cusps in internal premaxillary series disposed in a straight line in ventral view; larger dentary teeth tricuspid; a dark brown vertically elongated humeral blotch; usually 6 gill-rakers on first epibranchial
and 10-11 on hipobranchial arch (2)
Five new species of genus Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 from Rio Iguacu, Parana, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae)/ Cinco novas especies do genero Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 do Rio Iguacu, Parana, Brasil (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae)
In the postotic pharyngeal region in vertebrates, dorsal somites called epibranchial
somites and ventral pharyngeal arches coexist and produce a specific interface between head and trunk (Kuratani, 1997).