Sumatroscirpeae differs morphologically from Dulichieae by the sheathing fertile prophylls, separated from the glumes by an elongated epipodium
, the antrorsely-barbed perianth bristles, and the presence of a tubercle on the fruit (Leveille-Bourret et al.
assimilis, the epipodium
(the circular fringe of skin around the foot) and tentacles are mottled yellow to dark tan with vertical banding patterns and a lacy edge.
Haliotids possess a single gonad that is part of a conical appendage known as hepatogonadal complex, located on the left side of the shell and that can be exposed simply by raising the foot and the epipodium
(a sensory structure and extension of the foot that nears tentacles) (Cox, 1962) (Fig.
McLean (1981, 1982), however, identified certain lineages within these subfamilies that shared distinctive features of the shell, radula and epipodium
. He proposed (McLean 1981) that these represented Recent descendents of Mesozoic lineages (Amberleyidae) previously thought to have become extinct in the Oligocene or earlier.
paraclade consists of a short hypopodium, a prophyll, an epipodium
He observed that the large particles accumulated on the left epipodium
(neck lobe) and were then transported anteriorly by the action of cilia on the left anterior edge of the mantle (Fig.
Cephalic lappets present but small and not extending across forehead; right postocular peduncle well developed, similar in size to eyestalk or perhaps larger; right subocular tentacle not evident; neck lobes similar, each with 5 or 6 tentacles of varying size; epipodium
posterior to neck lobes with 4 or 5 tentacles of varying sizes on each side, with an epipodial sense organ faintly discernable at base of larger ones.
It was resolved to some extent by McLean's synonymy which recognized 13 species from a previous total of 58 names based on characters of the shells, epipodium
, and in some cases radulae, complemented by data on their geographic distributions.
The edible part of abalone can be differentiated into 3 parts: the columellar region (adductor muscle), the epipodium
, and the petal sole (Olley & Thrower 1977).
External anatomy (Figs 5B, 6E): Body white with pale brownish maculations on sides of foot and underside of epipodium
, snout heavily marked (transversely) with dark brown to black.
In the inflorescence branches, the internode length is variable; with the epipodium
being the internode showing the main variations.
In Andropogoneae, the shBr consists generally of a short hypopodium (virtual); a prophyll whose axillary bud forms a sessile spikelet; a long epipodium
(pedicel); and a pedicellate, generally more reduced spikelet (Vegetti, 1994, 1999).