(20) Conversely, errorful
practice would allow learners to make mistakes as they attempt to complete their task.
As I said in 2008 (Lenat 2008): "Some of these are very obvious and heavy-handed, hence uninteresting, but still work a surprising fraction of the time--'work' meaning, here, to enable the interrogator instantly to unmask many of the programs entered into a Turing test competition as programs and not human beings: slow and errorful
typing; 7 +/- 2 short-term memory size; forgetting (for example, what day of the week was April 7, 1996?
Brain activations in errorless and errorful
learning in patients with diffuse axonal injury: A functional MRI study.
It will still take some decades for translation devices to leave behind their errorful
and pidgin-like character, and routinely achieve a language level with high-quality grammatical, semantic, and discourse content; but once available, it will be routinely accessible through the Internet.
Participants in their studies acquired a rugby passing skill via implicit (errorless; Maxwell, Masters, Kerr, & Weedon, 2001) or explicit (errorful
) learning protocols.
An errorless learning approach was found to be superior to an errorful
method (i.e., no additional assistance) when teaching adults with memory deficits (Page, Wilson, Shiel, Carter, & Norris, 2006) and teaching college students academic skills (Heckler, Fuqua, & Pennypacker, 1975).
Our findings reveal some of the consequential complications that can arise as chains endeavor to learn and adapt, reinforcing the view that organizational learning is often an errorful
process subject to biases and distortions imposed by boundedly rational decision makers.
He showed that such "idiolectal" features of speech, obtainable from word transcripts, even errorful
transcripts produced by automatic speech recognizers, could greatly enhance performance.
Nevertheless, the conventional system has limited flexibility in dealing with incomplete, uncertain, errorful
, or disorderly data.
In fact, errorful
knowledge construction is common among children, and can indicate either partial understanding en route to true comprehension, or incorrect knowledge and misunderstandings that will lead to further learning problems.
Errorless learning attempts to provide an acquisition phase that discourages any errors whatsoever from being made, in order to strengthen the perceptual trace that ultimately leads to retention; (33) whereas errorful
learning provides an acquisition (training) phase in which individuals are allowed to make errors, because it is through the execution of these errors that the individual defines and refines the production and retention of the target behavior.
Some of these are very obvious and heavy-handed, hence uninteresting, but still work a surprising fraction of the time--"work" meaning, here, to enable the interrogator to instantly unmask many of the programs entered into a Turing test competition as programs and not human beings: slow and errorful
typing; 7 [+ or -] 2 short-term memory size; forgetting (for example, what day of the week was April 7, 1996?