They were used to regulate common rights, like estovers
(the right to gather kindling) and turbary (the right to cut peat), and responsibilities, like the obligation to maintain drains and sea walls.
Traditional common rights such as pannage, estovers
, and piscary may no longer be possible, but common right makes an uncanny return in Clare's mole-like poetry that continues to perform an ethics of multispecies commoning both frightening in its precariousness and threatening in its resilience.
Assart of the forest, rights of agistment, rights of pannage, estovers
of fire, house, cart or hedge, rush, fern, gorze and sedge rights, rights to searwood, to windfalls, to dotards, rights of lops and tops--in all, the overlapping vocabulary of natural and social relations recall a forgotten world, easily romanticized by those first criticizing the simplicities of meum et tuum.
(12) Rejuvenating long-held common rights of estovers
(collecting wood for fuel), piscary (fishing rights) and grazing may seem distant to modern life, but some of these could well become of pressing practical use once more.
These included the right to have one's livestock pasture and partake of the "common of herbage" for a specified time in the forest (agistment), the right to have one's pigs access acorns and beech mast (pannage), and the right to wood for fuel, repairs, and other necessities (estovers