These agents are an injectable aminoglycoside (kanamycin or amikacin), moxifloxacin, ethionamide
, terizidone and pyrazinamide (PZA).
Paraaminosalicylic acid, ethionamide
or prothionamide, and cycloserine or terizidone were used frequently, highlighting the limited drug options available and the necessity to use drugs with major toxicity and relatively poor efficacy.
induced pellagroid dermatitis resembling lichen simplex chronicus: A report of two cases.
Drug susceptibility testing by 7H11 agar proportion at the National Jewish Health Mycobacteriology Laboratory (Denver, Colorado) confirmed resistance to HRZE, streptomycin, kanamycin, amikacin, capreomycin, ethionamide
, and ciprofloxacin/ofloxacin, and reported susceptibility to cycloserine, para-aminosalicyclic acid (PAS), linezolid, clofazimine, and bedaquiline.
It has been observed, as well, that ginger can increase the bioavailability of the drug moieties of several drug classes, including antibiotics (erythromycin, 105%; azithromycin, 85%; cefadroxil, 65%; cephalexin, 85%; cloxacillin, 90%; amoxicillin, 90%; rifampicin, 65%; ethionamide
, 56%), antifungals (ketoconazole, 125%), antiretrovirals (zidovudine, 105%), and anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil, 110%) (37).
This study included 41 children below 5 years of age who were initiated on chemoprophylaxis according to the index's strain susceptibility and included high dose isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethionamide
, and ethambutol or high dose isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethionamide
, and ofloxacin daily for a period of six months.
The patient started an anti-MDR TB therapy with pyrazinamide, ethambutol, amikacin, levofloxacin, ethionamide
, and cycloserine.
The second-line drugs (capreomycin 2.5 [micro]g/mL, cycloserine 70 [micro]g/mL, ethionamide
2.5 [micro]g/mL, kanamycin 2.5 microgram/mL, ciprofloxacin 1 [micro]g/mL) were procured from the manufacturer in pure chemical form.
Therapy was reinitiated with RIF, INH, ethionamide
(ETA) and pyrazinamide (PZA).
The most common mutation in isoniazid resistance is at codon 315 (AGC to ACC) of katG gene.13 The pre-dominant mutation in inhA promoter region occurs at-15 position (C15T).1 InhA mutations are also responsible for ethionamide
resistance.14 The present study was planned to find out mutations in the "hot-spot regions" of inhA and katG genes among clinical isolates.
In this study, most commonly affected system was CNS, 41.28% and common offending drugs were cycloserine, fluoroquinolones, and ethionamide
. In the cases of psychosis, depression and suicidal thoughts, the first offending drug was cycloserine.
Significantly, 24.5% patients had tubercle bacilli resistant to one or more reserve drugs too (ethionamide
, kanamycin and/ or ofloxacin).