Among their topics are egophoric evidentiality in Bodish languages, perfect experiential constructions: the inferential semantics of direct evidence, Lhasa Tibetan predicates, copulas in Denjongke or Sikkimese Bhutia, observations on factors affecting the distributional properties of evidential
markers in Amdo Tibetan, and evidentials
in Pingwu Baima.
Lhasa Tibetan evidentials
and the semantics of causation.
The question of evidentiality has been debated at international conferences, producing a collection of anthologies and journal issues on the subject (e.g., Evidentials
2000; Studies in Evidentiality 2003; Journal of Pragmatics 33/3; LU XXXVIII 3).
in Ryukyuan; the Shuri variety of Luchuan; a typological and theoretical study of grammatical evidentiality.
The contrast between witnessed and unwitnessed evidentials
is also the same in negative clauses, which means that negative evidentials
also specify the source of the information.
I will refer to the former as "grammaticized evidentials
", and the latter as "evidentiality strategies", following Aikhenvald (2004).
Following Aikhenvald (2004 : 105), we regard the former as evidentials
and the latter as evidential
Regarding the semantic distinction, evidentials
are generally divided into direct and indirect evidentials
The latter would, on the one hand, allow us to draw more specific conclusions concerning semantics; on the other hand, it would show us where we should place the grammatical evidentials
in the verbal system amongst such categories as mood, tense, and aspect.
I have data about the use of evidentials
in negative clauses only in case of probabilitive--see examples (10), (16), (17), (23), (26), (29), (34).
Brandt's purpose is to develop certain models of the alleged organization of enunciation in order to specify its evidential