Following scholars such as Cynthia Hahn and Michael Camille, Root argues for the changing nature of the gaze from extramission
, wherein the object is produced by the gaze, to intromission, wherein the image looks back, engaging the audience's response.
Her argument depends on various medieval sources, including Augustine's three levels of vision, Peter of Limoges' sense of an individual's active will in seeing, and Robert Grosseteste's theories of light; and a useful discussion of intromission and extramission
ends in a draw, whereby Young agrees with the work of Suzannah Biemoff on medieval vision theory that both mechanisms are considered to be operating.
Other topics include relativism and rationalism: a metacontroversy, the controversy between Pasteur and Pouchet, intromission versus extramission
in Oxford, and the SSK in the name of prestigious ancestors.
It used to be thought that the reason we "saw" was that the eyes emitted a sight ray, which bounced off objects and travelled back into our eyes in a theory known as extramission
. Based on the observation of "fire" gleaming in animals' eyes, this idea was recorded by ancient writers like Pliny and developed into the "visual ray" hypothesis by natural philosophers including Plato and Pythagoras.
(1996) and Sheldrake (2005b), the link between the two beliefs is extramission
: the idea that when an individual looks at something, something is emitted from the eyes.
Through this dense study, Sturges attempts to connect the medieval tradition of vision (articulated through the contrasting notions of extramission
and intromission) to the Vita Nuova and shows how this tradition could be conceived as precursor of the psychoanalytic theory of the gaze, advanced by Jacques Lacan and Laura Mulvey.
On one level, we find it implicated in opposing models of extramission
and intromission (the question of whether vision stems from light rays emitted first from the eye or from the object perceived).
As intromission (visual rays emanating from objects to the eye) replaced extramission
(rays of light from the object to the eye), the idea of "sight functioning as access to the divine" took on new meaning (Hahn 2000 170; see Camille, 2000 204-08).
Electrophysiological properties of human ocular extramission
. Subtle Energy and Energy Medicine.
2 features Seers's mother talking about her childhood and how she believed she was a camera.
249-250): "theories of intromission and extramission
of simulacra flowing into the viewer's eyes or rays emerging from them to touch the objects of sight, competed and sometimes converged in antiquity and in particular in the ancient novels."
Her recent solo exhibition, "It has to be this way," opened in January at Matt's Gallery, London, and her video Extramission
6 (Black Maria), 2009, was included in the fourth Tate Triennial at Tate Britain, London, this past spring.