Keywords: Extrapyramidal symptoms
, antipsychotics, preschool child, Risperidone, Case report.
The main symptoms of the patients were psychomotor retardation (8/8), cerebellar ataxia (5/8), extrapyramidal symptoms
(7/8), and seizures (4/8).
Symptoms following atypical antipsychotics include fewer extrapyramidal symptoms
, reduced creatine kinase elevations, reduced muscle rigidity, and frequent mild fever.
were characterized by tonus fluctuation and asymmetric dyskinesias in the extremities that were absent during sleep.
However, antipsychotics should be used with caution due to the potential for worsening extrapyramidal symptoms
. Also, the use of levodopa for Parkinsonism has not shown to be effective.
The use of antipsychotic drugs in patients with PD is complicated due to their ability to block dopaminergic D2 receptors which can induce dyskinesia and other extrapyramidal symptoms
. Antipsychotic drugs differ significantly in their affinity towards D2 receptors.
The potential risk factors associated with the development of TD were reported as the presence of a past medical history of extrapyramidal symptoms
, diabetes mellitus, affective disorders, female gender older age, and long-term therapy with neuroleptics at higher dosages (9).
(EPS) observed during the 6-week LATUDA monotherapy study included akathisia (noted for 8%, 11%, and 2% of patients in the LATUDA 20-60 mg, LATUDA 80-120 mg, and placebo groups, respectively), dystonia (0%, 2%, and 0%), parkinsonism (5%, 8%, and 2%), and restlessness (0%, 3%, and <1%).
There were also abnormalities in the caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus, which probably explain his extrapyramidal symptoms
No extrapyramidal symptoms
or side effects were found.
[1-4] Besides the higher efficacy, clozapine also has a lower incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms
(EPSs) than the classic neuroleptics.
* Adult patients with schizophrenia: somnolence, akathisia, extrapyramidal symptoms
, and nausea