at 1318 ("[P]ublic dialogue of the sort engaged in by the authors of The Federalist
and the Anti-Federalists
is potentially quite reliable for figuring out original constitutional understanding or meaning.
It is ironic that the early republic's party of centralization, the Federalists
, opposed what Walter Borneman has recently called "the war that forged a nation.
The Jeffersonian opposition called it free speech; the Federalists
feared the bodice-ripping radicalism that had taken over the French Revolution.
Ferling writes that (in conjunction with other issues), the Federalists
stood for a very strong central government, ceding few powers to the states, and the Republicans wanted the central government to maintain authority and control over only national issues, while ceding certain other powers to the states.
Its memorialization was initiated by merchants who prized it for denoting elite rule and social harmony, and it acquired a public dimension when Federalists
used it in their campaign to ratify the Constitution in 1787.
Ungainly impressions have been what the Federalists
have been creating ever since.
5) The defeated proponents of the 1783 impost in New York became the Federalists
in favor of the Constitution in 1788, and the party that had defeated the 1783 impost remained intact to become the Anti-Federalists
in opposition to the Constitution in 1788.
In part, the answer is that the United States supported Louverture because it was good for the United States--perhaps even good for slavery, as some southern Federalists
, who controlled the national government under our first two presidents, were centralizers with an aristocratic bent.
Thanks (paradoxically) to Marshall, the Federalists
actually lost the case--Marbury never got his commission--and that may have been the main reason Marshall was not impeached.
Yet when Hamilton writes as Publius, he leaves that "gutter world" to redirect a contentious and exhausting debate toward a moderate discussion of virtues favoring what the Federalists
saw as their cautioned adoption of a robust constitution.
gladly welcomed the collaboration of the unwitting democrats Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, who would emit egalitarian rhetoric on behalf of the Federalists
and leave the impression with the public that the Federalist
agenda featured inclusive participation.