He said these are July 22, 1963 when for the first time Sarawak was led by a local in attaining self-determination and August 31, 1963 when Sarawak joined the Federated Malay States
to celebrate this date as National Day.
Kahn notes that, according to 1933 legislation for land reservation schemes in Federated Malay States
, "Malay was defined as 'a person belonging to any Malayan race who habitually speaks the Malay language or any Malayan language and professes the Muslim religion'" (Kahn 2006, p.
(16) Frank Swettenham, Resident-General of the Federated Malay States
(1896-1901) and Governor of the Straits Settlements (1901-04), wanted to open up British Malaya by constructing 'high-class roads, railways, telegraphs, waterworks'.
Mok describes the organizational changes in the island-based surveying establishment, and the important surveys and maps they undertook, from Raffles' 1819 founding of an East India Company trading post on the island, through the first 1:63,360 map of the entire island in 1852, the merger of the Survey Departments of the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States
in 1920, the extension of the primary triangulation of Malaya to Singapore in 1921, the first modern contoured topographical map of the island in 1924, Japanese-occupation mapping 1942-1945, a 1:10,000 topographic series in 1959, formation of the Singapore Armed Forces Mapping Unit (SAFMU) in 1970, to metrication in the 1970s, computerisation in the 1980s, and the creation of a national digital terrain model in 2013.
Nathan was one of the many aboard HMS Malaya during the battle, a ship named in honour of the Federated Malay States
in British Malaya, whose government paid for her construction.
In the early 20th century academic anthropological theory was explored by Paul Schebesta, a Moravian missionary writing in German; he proposed the commonality of "dwarf peoples." But Ivor Evans, who was employed in the Federated Malay States
Museum service, and engaged in study of Malaya's indigenous peoples did not "write about the place of Malaya's indigenous peoples within a grand racial scheme, preferring instead to devote himself to photography and descriptive ethnography." The focus in writings of this period shifted to Malays, with much less attention devoted to the indigenous peoples.
Taxation of exports accounted for only a small proportion of total revenues in most colonies; the main exception was the Federated Malay States
, where it accounted for around 15 per cent of total revenues.
But the city was repopulated and rebuilt (this time in brick, by order of the British, to avoid future destruction) and grew rapidly in wealth and prominence, becoming in turn the capital of Selangor state, the Federated Malay States
, independent Malaya and, finally, modern Malaysia.
By 1900 Perak, Selangor, Pahang and Negeri Sembilan had accepted British Residents and were known collectively as the Federated Malay States
Originally this money constituted the Malayan Rubber Fund, from which the Government of the Federated Malay States
financed the activities of the Rubber Research Institute of Malaya (RRIM), the British (now Malaysian) Rubber Producers' Research Association (MRPRA) and the British rubber Development Board (BRDB).
After that, a Federated Malay States
Railway resident engineer, Arnold Robert Johnson, proposed building a funicular railway in 1909 which was cost effective and energy efficient.
Close cooperation was also established with the two Federated Malay States
Museums at Taiping and Selangor, where H.C.