According our previous studies , the equatorial streak of small-angle diffuse scattering for PSA fibers is generally attributed to the presence of fibrils elongated along the fiber axis
. Therefore, the size of the fibrils was determined.
In the case of the Kevlar aramid fibers, the small, rigid molecules are processed in a liquid crystal state and extruded to orient the molecules along the fiber axis
where they coalesce into crystallites that are typically about 5 nm wide and tens of nm long [5, 6, 12].
In the simulation, cylindrical coordinates are used for PML to absorb the radiant energy from fiber axis
In the GFRP bolt numerical analysis in this paper, the upper direction parallel to the fiber axis
was the positive direction of Z-axis, and the right direction perpendicular to the fiber axis
was the positive direction of Y-axis; then the direction of X-axis was determined by Descartes coordinate system.
Skew rays propagate in a helical pattern along the fiber axis
, which naturally establishes a circular coverage of possible defect-induced absorption and/or scattering.
According to their analysis, the direction along the fiber axis
corresponds to [pi]-[pi] stacking direction while the direction perpendicular should be governed mainly by intrachain transport which may occur along more than one polymer chain.
Microfibrilla and fibrilla settles down in separate layers of cellulose turbinal, at an angle 20-40[degrees] to a fiber axis
therefore fiber twists as a spiral concerning the axis .
In the chosen configuration, the growth direction of such cracks is along the fiber axis
The matrix is divided into sections by cutting the matrix perpendicular to the fiber axis
. The polymer matrix is removed by gas or plasma etching, exposing free fiber ends.
Consider the original length along the fiber axis
is a unit of dx.
Graphitisation: Depending on the type of fiber required, the fibers are treated at temperatures between 1500-3000[?]C, which improves the ordering, and orientation of the crystallites in the direction of the fiber axis
The average pore size along the fiber axis
is 5.44 [+ or -] 0.82 [micro]m while perpendicular to the fiber axis
is 2.59 [+ or -] 0.82 [micro]m.