Atherosclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia
are the major causes of renal artery stenosis.
Investigations for fibromuscular dysplasia
, thyrotoxicosis, HIV and pregnancy were all negative.
During evaluating for ACD, we should differentiate several entities including PA aneurysm, PA entrapment, peripheral artery disease, Baker's cyst, and fibromuscular dysplasia
., For this, magnetic resonance angiography and CTA are helpful as in our case.,,
While in 30 per cent cases, physical stress (in 10 per cent this was lifting more than 23 kg) occurred before SCAD, the most common predisposing condition was fibromuscular dysplasia
(40 per cent) which causes abnormal cell development in the arteries and can lead to narrowing (stenosis), aneurysms, or tears (dissections).
All patients with fibromuscular dysplasia
were excluded as donors.
However, arterial dissection can occur due to vasculitis, fibromuscular dysplasia
, radiation, and use of cocaine.
Because of the extreme rarity and unfamiliarity of the disease, the carotid web was variously described in the literature as carotid bulb web, carotid bulb diaphragm, carotid bulb septa, pseudovalvular folds, atypical fibromuscular dysplasia
, and atypical fibromuscular hyperplasia .
[12,13] Fibromuscular dysplasia
and vessel compression can cause limb ischemia even though they do not have an atherosclerotic process.
The causes of carotid pseudoaneurysm are varied but trauma and prior carotid repair are the most common causes.5 Other causes include atherosclerosis, infection, and rare etiologies such as collagen vascular disease, fibromuscular dysplasia
, and irradiation.
In particular, there was no angiographic evidence of fibromuscular dysplasia
(FMD) in the respective arterial beds [Figure 3].
Although connective tissue abnormalities, hyperhomocysteinemia, fibromuscular dysplasia
, and hypertension are factors associated with SVAD, the tortuous and a relative large range of motion of VA at craniocervical level are perhaps the major predisposing factors.