Second, to conduct epidemiologic or field studies
of pesticides, the products must already be on the market because one cannot measure natural exposures to a chemical that people are not using.
Major Pavlin is chief of the Field Studies
Department, Division of Preventive Medicine, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.
In military actions, search-and-rescue operations, and scientific field studies
, people rely increasingly on cell phones, global positioning system receivers, night-vision goggles, and other battery-powered devices.
These will include guidelines for ascertainment and case definition in epidemiologic field studies
, and recommendations for both exposure assessment methods and a minimal data set of high-importance exposures to be collected in future investigations.
Venereal transmission, which would be difficult to address in field studies
, will require parallel studies in the laboratory.
of Alaska's oriented-thaw lakes, as well as of similar bodies of water in northern Canada and Siberia, only rarely show signs of slumping along lakeshores, says Kenneth M.
These techniques may include quantitative and/or qualitative approaches, including laboratory and field studies
, surveys and needs analyses, 'in silico' experiments, modeling and simulation studies.
in Iraq conducted during the past year suggest that some of the region's ecologically devastated marshes could be restored, scientists reported at a meeting on Feb.
It's wonderful for them to be able to get out of the classroom and do field studies