This year's selection includes a trio of young, acclaimed names: painter/photographer Zean Cabangis, fine artist Leeroy New and figurist
(1) Although The Garden of Eloquence has traditionally been referred to as a 'treatise' having either marked 'Ramist' (2) or 'figurist
' (3) inclinations--stepping into the shoes of Richard Sherry, Joannes Susenbrotus, or Dudley Fenner (4)--this apparent paradox in its classification indicates that, despite Peacham's obvious concern with elocutio, The Garden is more complex than has conventionally been assumed.
Balla's work became increasingly abstract; by the end of his career he was considered a Figurist
. He died in Rome at the age of 86.
The two essays on the Figurist
ideas of Joseph Premare, S.J., and the substantial unpublished writings of Antoine de Beauvollier, S.J., reveal the complex nature of the Rites Controversy.
(17) Premare belonged to the group in China called the figurists
(MUNGELLO, 2013; LEE, 1991), authors who have been influenced by Premare's teacher, Father Joachim Bouvet (1656-1730) and who were convinced that the Chinese canonical books hid the truth of the original Christian revelation through figurative and symbolic forms.
[F]irst, that the general theory of composition and of reading current in Shakespeare's England is to be found in one form in the contemporary works on logic and rhetoric combined; second, that it is to be found in another form in the work of the figurists
which, surprisingly, treats of approximately the same matter as do the logic and rhetoric texts combined; third, that these two forms, although outwardly different, are fundamentally alike.
Jesuits frequently commented on the lack of abstraction in Native speeches: "[R]ude and untutored as they are, all their conceptions are limited to sensible and material things; there is nothing abstract, internal, spiritual, or distinct" ( 11).(5) The Native languages were unaccustomed to the high concepts of Christianity which, though - in the opinion of Figurists
- revealed to the Natives' ancestors eons previously, existed only in vestigial remnants.