These molecules orchestrate coordinated cytoskeletal reorganizations by generating different structures, like filopodium
, lamellipodium, or uropod, depending on the type of GTPase activated, that is, Cdc42, Rac, or RhoA, respectively .
Bone marrow cells cultured on small diameter NT arrays demonstrated well-spread morphologies with more lamellipodia, whereas the cells on large diameter NT arrays displayed noticeable filopodium
. Cells seeded on the surfaces of ICA-loaded NT substrates expressed more filopodium
than nonloaded NT groups.
Further, growing body of evidence suggests that the actin-based processes, including cell polarity, filopodium
formation, and cell migration, might be important in advanced cancers and may be associated with the formation of metastases (31).