Here is a crumbling wall that was old when Columbus discovered America; was old when Peter the Hermit roused the knightly men of the Middle Ages to arm for the first Crusade
; was old when Charlemagne and his paladins beleaguered enchanted castles and battled with giants and genii in the fabled days of the olden time; was old when Christ and his disciples walked the earth; stood where it stands today when the lips of Memnon were vocal and men bought and sold in the streets of ancient Thebes!
Part of this venerable building dates back to the time of the first crusade
, when Hugo de Capus built a fortalice in the centre of the estate, which had been granted to him by the Red King.
They settled Iceland and Greenland and prematurely discovered America; they established themselves as the ruling aristocracy in Russia, and as the imperial body-guard and chief bulwark of the Byzantine empire at Constantinople; and in the eleventh century they conquered southern Italy and Sicily, whence in the first crusade
they pressed on with unabated vigor to Asia Minor.
We even get dirty jokes: Comedians started pressing them onto wax cylinders in the 1890s, sparking America's first crusade
to censor indecent recordings.
Born in Nishapur in northeastern Iran, Khayyam spent most of his life near the court of the Karakhanid and Seljuq rulers in the period which witnessed the First Crusade
CLEARLY, mankind/humanity has not learned from the atrocities inflicted by both sides during the First Crusade
in the 11th century: 24 hours after breaching the gates of the Holy City in 1099, a sea of red covered Jerusalem.
In order to avoid the generalizations that characterize previous studies of medieval mechanical artillery, Fulton focuses on a specific region and a relatively short period of time: the Levant from 1097 to 1291--from the arrival of the First Crusade
in Anatolia until the expulsion of the Franks from Palestine and Syria.
In this case, two models will be presented, one based on mathematics and the other drawing from modern music, which can then be applied to analyzing the causes of Pope Urban II's call for the First Crusade
. Finally several other causation models will be introduced to discuss the effectiveness of introducing students to various models of historical causation.
1099: The city of Jerusalem is captured and plundered by Christian forces during the First Crusade
The narrative of the First Crusade
is well established and is still best exemplified by Steven Runciman, The First Crusade
and the Foundations of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Cambridge, 1951), though Thomas Asbridge, The First Crusade
: A New History: The Roots of the Conflict Between Christianity and Islam (London, 2005) offers a more up-to-date accounting.
The Crusaders wanted vengeance because they had been indoctrinated since the first crusade
in 1096 to persecute and kill in the name of Jesus Christ and less to conquer and protect the religious symbols, although the latter had been triggered from the latter.
Offering new interpretations of key topics relevant to the medieval ear, "Streams of Gold, Rivers of Blood" is presented in three parts: Part 1 covers the years 955-1025, a period of imperial conquest and consolidation of authority under the great emperor Basil "the Bulgar-Slayer"; Part 2 (1025-1059) examines the dispersal of centralized authority in Constantinople as well as the emergence of new foreign enemies (Pechenegs, Seljuks, and Normans); Part 3 chronicles the spectacular collapse of the empire during the second half of the eleventh century, concluding with a look at the First Crusade
and its consequences for Byzantine relations with the powers of Western Europe.