Pope Gregory XVI thought railroads were the work of the devil, Pope Pius IX went from liberal to conservative, convoked the First Vatican Council
, became infallible and spent his last years as the prisoner of the Vatican.
The First Vatican Council
met from December 1869 until July 1870, says O'Malley, and its decree, Pastor Aeternus defined papal primacy and infallibility, moving the Roman Catholic Church to a significantly more pope-centered mode, that is, ultramontane.
engagingly unfolds this power narrative from that point through the First Vatican Council
, the imposition of stringent safeguards against Modernism, and the silencing of theologians in the 1940s and 1950s.
Chapman quotes often from Christopher Wordsworth, the poet's nephew, who wrote the official Anglican response to the First Vatican Council
, and called the Church of Rome the Babylon of the Apocalypse.
The doctrine of papal infallibility, in Acton's view, subordinated individual conscience to papal authority, in line with Pius IX's Syllabus of Errors of 1864, which characterized freedom of conscience as an "insane folly." Another essay, by Dominik Burkard, shows how John Henry Newman's thought--Newman referred to conscience as the "authoritative oracle"--intersected with Acton's and compares and contrasts how the two men, animated by similar ideas, dealt with the challenge posed by the First Vatican Council
and papal infallibility.
He defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception in 1848 and called the First Vatican Council
in 1868, which defined papal infallibility and the divine inspiration of the Bible.
Far from being a mere "stop-gap" Pope, to great excitement, John XXIII called for an ecumenical council fewer than ninety years after the First Vatican Council
(Vatican I's predecessor, the Council of Trent, had been held in the 16th century).
The pope has, especially since the declaration of papal infallibility at the First Vatican Council
, acquired a quasi-inspired status, as if he had a direct line to the Holy One.
Many Catholic authorities and experts had held the position that since the First Vatican Council
, ending in 1870, future councils would be unnecessary.
That first Vatican council
came to a sudden end on 18 July 1870 when, in the midst of a great thunderstorm, the vote was taken on papal infallibility.
Verhoeven concludes Transatlantic Anti-Catholicism by recounting the controversy of papal infallibility in the First Vatican Council
and by returning to the provocative tale of Father Hyacinthe's estrangement from the Catholic Church and marriage to an American widow.
One of the most fascinating episodes is Moran's involvement in the first Vatican Council
, which defined Papal Infallibility.