Basal occupations at the Dry Creek, Owl Ridge, Moose Creek, and Walker Road sites have been assigned to the Nenana complex on the basis of the presence of blade tools, flake tools, gravers, and small, thin bifacial teardrop-shaped and triangular points (often called Chindadn points) and the consistent absence of microblade technology (Powers and Hamilton, 1978; Powers and Hoffecker, 1989; Hoffecker et al.
Testing of the middle terrace in 2010 produced ample concentrations of debitage and bone, flake tools, microblades, a lanceolate biface, and a deeply buried, intact hearth dating to 13 120-12830 cal BP (Beta-293544).
But the Armenian site suggests that multiple groups figured out how to create the flake tools
Unlike the French assemblages --that are centuries older to boot--, in which it is true that flakes as well as blades and bladelets are sometimes important as tool blanks, the Miron ones have large quantities of flakes and flake tools
on local, non-flint raw materials and variable quantities of laminar and especially lamellar products on fine-grain, non-local flints.
The largest group (67%) consisted of the actual mining tools themselves (rock-breaking hammers), with the crushing anvils (used or re-used) at 13%, mallets or chisels 8%, hand-held crushing tools 6%, and re-used flake tools 6%.
2) evidence for grindinguse; (3) crushing anviluse (either primary or secondary) or (4) re-use as a flake tool.
Eleven flake tools and two stemmed tools used for skinworking were identified (Table 1).
Of these seven tools, four stemmed tools are from FSZ site on Garua Island (Figures 7A-C), two flake tools with alternate retouched points/edges ("gravers") are from Makue and Vilavi sites in Vanuatu (Figures 10A, 10D) and one flake with dorsal retouch is from the SDP site on Duke of York Islands.
The easy-to-manufacture tools - also known as microliths - were a vast improvement over larger stone flake tools
used previously, according to Michael Petraglia, an archaeologist at the University of Oxford, UK, who led the study.
Limestone pebbles were used to make chopping tools, flint for the modification of cores, flakes, and flake tools
, and basalt mainly for the production of bifaced hand axes and cleavers.
Gravers are also flake tools
that have been modified by simple retouch to form a protrusion on a thicker part of the flake that is suitable for scraping or gouging.
There was no discernable pattern of distribution of artefact type or material within the site except that the density of flake tools
was higher in the fill of the three large post holes than elsewhere.