Phytochemicals, or bioactive food components, such as is flavones
in soy foods and glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables may be the source of the benefit, the researchers said.
Tests were performed for the detection of phenols, flavones
, flavonols, xanthones, catechins, anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, triterpenoids, flavanones, saponins, alkaloids, and tannins.
Some specific flavonoids can be found in the following food sources: flavonols in apples with skin, broccoli, olives, onions, and tea (green, black); flavones
in celery and parsley; flavonones in grapefruit, oranges, and their juices; and catechins (flavanols) in apples (with or without skin), dark chocolate and cocoa, red wine, and tea (green, black).
Celery contains beneficial phytonutrients such as the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol, flavones
such as luteolin, and phenolic acids.
Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, flavones
Over 9,000 flavonoids have been identified and categorized according to chemical structure into nine leading subgroups as chalcones, flavones
, flavonols, flavanones, flavanediols, anthocyanins, isoflavones, aurones and tannins (Fig.
During a 10-year follow-up period, the study participants who ate the highest amounts of foods rich in three types of flavonoids--anthocyanins, flavones
, and flavanones--reduced their risk of ED by about 10 percent compared to the men who ate these foods the least, the researchers found.
are not widely distributed in nature like other subclass of flavonoids.
Some studies revealed that aside from chlorogenic acid, honeysuckle also contains other phenylpropanoids, such as flavones
, isochlorogenic acid A, caffeic acid, lignin, and so on.
There is also a hypothesis that flavones
may inhibit atherosclerotic development, because they have antioxidant properties against LDL oxidation.
In live animal models, these flavones
have also halted tumour growth, offering hope that they may one day lead to effective cancer treatments, or even cures.
Flavonoids are further subclassified in to flavones
, flavonols, isoflavones, flavanones, flavanols, and anthocyanidins [11, 12] (Figure 1).