Effects of marinating on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and fluoranthene
) in grilled beef meat.
Due to their toxicity to humans, the following 17 compounds are most frequently determined: acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, chrysene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, fluoranthene
, fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene.
The standard curve of PAHs was including naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene
, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b) fluoranthene
, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd) pyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene as shown in figure 1.
A certified PAH reference material, containing the 7 EPA priority PAHs including; Naphthalene (Np), Anthracene (An), Chrysene (Chry) and Acenaphthylene (Ace) fluorine (F), Benzo ([alpha]) Pyrene, (B[[alpha]] Py Fluoranthene
(Fi) with 97 to 100 % purity was obtained from Accustandard (New Haven, USA).
Thereafter, 10-fold serial dilution bacterial suspension was spread on plates containing MSM-agar coated with fluoranthene
, phenanthrene and pyrene surface layer diluted in acetone at 10 and 50 mg/[L.sup.-1], and incubated at 28 [grados]C for 72 h (Tam et al.
The Geier study also reported that fluoranthene
and 9-methylanthracene induced cyp1a1 expression in the vasculature; however, our data did not show a significant increase in slincR expression for these two PAHs, emphasizing the ligand-specific transcriptional responses of AHR activation (Geier et al.
Removal of fluoranthene
and pyrene by different microalgal species.
The aromatic hydrocarbons formed as a result of pyrolysis include benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[k] fluoranthene
and benzo[b] fluoranthene
(Knize et al., 1999).
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, fluorene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene (internal standard (i.s)), benzo(a)anthracene, fluoranthene
, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene.
Seven major PAH contaminants of concern (COCs) in sediment were identified in the original site risk assessment based on calculated cancer risk and hazard indexes, which were benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[b] fluoranthene
, benzo[k]fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz[a,h] anthracene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene.
Alkylated homologous PAH, such as methylnaphthalene ([C.sub.1]), dimethylnaphthalene (C2), and trimethylnaphthalene ([C.sub.3]), phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene
, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene were detected in all samples along the sedimentary core.
Calibration was achieved using a commercial standard solution of BTEXs and 3 custom standard solutions of [C.sub.9]-[C.sub.20] n-alkanes, [C.sub.6]-[C.sub.18] n-FAs, and PAHs containing naphthalene (N), Acenaphtene (A), Fluorene (F), Phenanthrene (Ph), Anthracene (An), Fluoranthene
(Fl), and pyrene (Py) (LGC Standards, LGC Ltd.).