Hobbs (Chief Scientist for Natural Language Processing, Information Sciences Institute, and a Research Professor, University of Southern California) "A Formal Theory
of Commonsense Psychology: How People Think People Think" provides a large-scale logical formalization of commonsense psychology in support of humanlike artificial intelligence.
In order to obtain this result, they extend the theory of distributors and the formal theory
emphasizes choice (easy to assume) rather than utility (too hard to define); it liberates the political scientist from rank utilitarianism at the cost of muddying the causal determination that arises from knowing what your true interest is.
We have deliberately avoids advanced mathematics and formal theory
, "says Sack.
Also absent is Wroe Alderson and Miles Martin's classic, "Toward a Formal Theory
of Transactions and Transvections," which represents an early example of rigorous theorizing on the movement of goods and information.
For clinicians, many are mystified by theoretical models, a problem that has recently been addressed and an argument is made for the use of formal theory
in practice over use of 'common sense' to guide implementation.
I understand part of this dilemma as relating to whether we are talking about formal theory
or local theory.
either did not exist for a particular idea, or more than one idea or perspective seemed to exist.
More specifically, Reason and Kimball suggested that when developing programs or planning interventions student affairs professionals should (a) systematically consider and adopt relevant scholarly knowledge [which they call formal theory
]; (b) generate a nuanced understanding of their work environment and the student populations with whom they work [institutional context]; (c) parse, and if necessary reconstruct, selected formal theories to better fit the environment within which the theory will be applied using their own experiences as a guide [informal theory]; (d) and adopt intentional developmental interventions that are consistent with their understanding of formal theory
, institutional context, and informal theory [practice].
on innovation does not offer certainty.
Yet historical institutionalists should shrug off these slights and join their formal theory
brethren in reading this book and taking seriously its sincere efforts to grapple with contingency.
In formal theory
, incentives are generally restricted to the sphere of contracts, within the context of a principal-agent relationship (Laffont & Martimort, 2002).